Learn and Master Bibliographies, Works Cited, and References

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MLA 7th Edition vs MLA 8th Edition
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As you start to prepare your paper in MLA Style, you realize you don’t know if you should use the seventh edition or the eighth edition of the” MLA Handbook”. You may think there’s not much difference but, in this case, a shift in creating entries for your Works Cited list took place with the publication of the eighth edition. In 2016, the Modern Language Association (MLA) decided it...

Alphabetizing Your  MLA Works Cited List
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You finally have your research paper finished and your sources created into entries and now you can start putting it all together. You’re almost done. Alphabetizing your MLA Works Cited list is easy as it follows the letter by letter method. Read on to understand how this method works when you’re dealing with multiple authors, no author or other cases. List Items Alphabetically  The first step is...

Organizing a MLA Works Cited List
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Unlike a bibliography, a Works Cited list is created to list only the sources you cited in your research paper. Every citation in your paper should match up to an entry in your Works Cited list, which means you need to review your paper to make sure the in-text citations are properly sourced at the end of your paper. If your instructor asks you to prepare a bibliography in MLA style, title it...

Using 3- em Dash in Chicago/Turabian
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While developing your Chicago/Turabian style bibliography or reference list, you may use the 3-em dash method for multiple works by the same author. In the author-date style you will use the publication date to organize your  entries by the same author (or editor, translator).  If you are using the notes-biblio style, you will organize your entries by the title of the work. Creating a 3-em Dash A...

How to Cite Legal Sources in APA
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If you’re using legal sources in your report and are trying to figure out how to fit them into your reference list, you’ll probably feel somewhat confused because, for the most part, APA follows The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation style. However, in some cases, you’ll still follow APA guidelines. Bluebook or APA APA recommends that references to legal materials, such as statutes, court...

APA Reference List: Periodical Examples
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APA Reference List: Periodical Examples. 6th Edition Periodicals are materials that are published on a regular basis. For example, magazines, newsletters, journals may be published daily, weekly, monthly or other regularly scheduled dates. Periodicals follow a general reference form in APA with a few differences. Newspaper articles citations include the year of publication as well as the day;...

How to Alphabetize Your APA Reference List
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You’ve finished your paper and have your references organized and ready to place into your Reference List. You know it needs to be in alphabetical order so that’s pretty easy…a, b, c….  Or is it? But wait! You have three separate works written by the same author and two articles written by people with the same last name, different first names. Okay, so this isn’t as easy as it seems at first...

APA Book Reference Examples
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APA Reference List Citation Examples Creating APA citations for print and ebooks is simple once you understand the format. APA uses the author-date system, which means the author’s last name, first initial and the date of publication are the most important elements of the citation. Citing Print Books in APA BOOK (PRINT) One author Author, A.A. (2001). Title of work. Location: Publisher...

Using a DOI® Link
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You’re gathering your resources together when suddenly you notice that several of your online journal articles aren’t linked to a web address (URL.) What is that mysterious notation at the end of the citation?  You’re used to seeing a link to an online article in this way:  ,when all of the sudden, this doi® number shows up: doi: 130.065.109.155 What does this mean? The Difference Between...

Types of Bibliography Styles
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When it comes to writing styles, there are a lot of them. Whether you’re writing a biology, communications, theology or philosophy research paper or essay, there is a writing style for you. Learn about the different styles, how the reference pages differ and why bibliographies are different. What’s in a Name? In the world of writing, there are bibliographies and then there are...

APA, MLA and, CMOS Footnote Referencing Styles
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You’ve ventured into the wacky world of footnotes. Understanding which styles use them, when they use them and how to use them can have you scratching your head in confusion. Don’t fret! Learn all the different footnotes referencing styles, why you might use footnotes and how to use them through examples. Using Footnotes Footnotes are one way to make in-text citations. Similar to author-date or...

Bibliography for a Research Paper
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Research papers take a lot of different steps to format your outline and discuss where your sources came from. Every paper ends with a citation page or bibliography. The type of bibliography that you use will depend on your research. Bibliography Uncovered Before you can even get into the steps of creating your bibliography, you need to understand specifically what a bibliography is and the best...

Standard Chicago/Turabian Bibliography Template
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Creating a paper is a lot of work. However, before you can sit back and relax, you need to create a bibliography. The bibliography will list all the sources that you used in the creation of your work. Bibliographies are typically found in Chicago, Turabian and Harvard writing styles. Knowing Your Style Different styles use different citation pages. Chicago, Turabian and Harvard can use a...

Bibliography Examples for Students
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It can be hard to know where to start when you are creating your bibliography. Are you creating the right margins? Is the formatting correct? Use examples to make sure that your bibliography is top-notch. It’s All a Bibliography Right? When it comes to a writing a bibliography, it can get confusing. This is because the word bibliography can have a double meaning when it comes to writing styles...

Preliminary Bibliography Examples
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When you’re trying to get your project or research paper organized, it can be helpful to create a preliminary bibliography before jumping in head first. Not only will this help you to organize your research, but it’ll give you a good start on your paper. Preliminary bibs can also help you figure out which sources are keepers or duds. What Is a Preliminary Bibliography? After you hone down...

How to Write a Bibliography for a School Project
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Several school projects can include a research paper. Writing a paper for a school project can be a daunting task. Whether you are writing for college or high school, you need to keep track of the sources that you use and reference them at the end of your paper. The type of reference list or bibliography that you use will depend on you or your professor. What Is a Bibliography? The word...

APA vs MLA Citation Page
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You’ve been looking over the different writing styles and noticed that MLA and APA are similar. Staring at the citation page, you really can’t see a difference between the two. While MLA and APA do have a lot of similarities in the citation pages, there are a few distinct differences that you’ll notice if you really look at them. MLA vs APA If you are comparing MLA and APA, it’ll come to...

Using Endnotes and a Bibliography
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Your professor required that you create endnotes for your in-text citation. You’ve composed your endnote page beautifully. Now, you’re looking at creating the bibliography. But, why? Didn’t you cover everything in your endnotes. Learn the difference and similarities between a bibliography and endnotes. Find out when you’ll use each and why. Endnotes, Bibliography or Both Per the name...

Bibliography Rules and Guidelines
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Your eyes are crossed. You haven’t showered in three days, but your paper is done. Pushing away from your computer, you breathe a much needed sigh of relief. That is until you realize that you haven’t created your bibliography. What’s your style again? How do you create it? Don’t worry. Your guide for all things bibliographical is ready to help. Not All Bibliographies Are Equal In the...

APA Style Citation Format Examples
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Writing your paper was easy-peasy. You had the perfect sources, and everything reads great. Now it’s time to format your reference page. You’re looking at the books, web pages, PDFs, journals and magazines that you used. Formatting each one is slightly different. Break down the format that you should use by looking at a few different examples. Citation Rules There are rules that the...

Works Cited Page Example
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Your paper is perfect! All your in-text quotes have a citation, the formatting is top-notch and you’re now breathing a sigh of relief. Until you realize you don’t have a works cited. Don’t lose your cool. You have the research and the paper, the works cited is a piece of cake. How to Do a Works Cited Page A works cited page is the last page of your MLA style paper. It’ll include your references...

Easy APA Citation Page
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Your professor requested APA format and your paper is done. Time to breathe easy right? What about your references page? You didn’t think to create that while you were writing your paper and now you are staring at it in horror. You have your references, but what should they look like? How should they be formatted? Check out a few examples to make sure you are doing it right. Bibliography vs...

Turabian Style Citations and Bibliography
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Your professor has told you to write your paper in Turabian style, but you’re clueless. You keep seeing this style and Chicago combined. Now you are really confused. Find your answers to what Turabian is and how it’s created. What Is Turabian Style? Turabian is a style covered under the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS). The difference in these styles is who they are created for...

Differences Between Bibliography and Works Cited and References
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Is your head spinning over the difference? Don’t let the terminology get to you. In its most basic form, a reference page, works cited and bibliography are all a page at the end of your paper where you cite the sources that made your essay awesome. Learn when to use a reference, bibliography or works cited along with how they’re different. Time for a Bibliography Knowing when to use a...

How to Make a Citation in MLA, APA, and Chicago/Turabian
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In high school, college and even your career, knowing how to make a citation within your writing is important. The citation lets the reader know where you found the information and where they can find the information. It also makes it clear that these aren’t your thoughts. Citation is all about giving credit where credit is due. Citation is All About Style Whether it’s your clothes, your...

Difference Between Citations and References
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References and citations are the apples and oranges of the writing world. While it might seem like these two words are interchangeable. They are distinctly different within a scholarly writing piece. Learn what they are and how to use each one. Citations or References No matter what writing style that you use, you’ll come across the reference or citation dilemma, especially if you’re a...

How to Write an Annotated Bibliography in MLA Style
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Is your professor asking you to write an annotated bibliography? Are you clueless? You’ve come to the right place. The world of bibliographies can be a difficult web to weave, especially when you are talking about annotated bibliographies. Take a deep breath and get ready. You’re going to learn everything you need to know to make an annotated bibliography in MLA. What Is an Annotated...

How to Write Footnotes in MLA, APA, and Chicago
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The time has come. You need to use footnotes in your paper. The sweat is beading. You’re starting to wonder if there is a way around it. Formatting footnotes isn’t the end of the world, if you know what you’re doing.  When to Use Footnotes in APA Before you delve head first into the world of footnotes, it is important to realize that APA format doesn’t generally recommend using footnotes...

How to Cite the Bible in APA, MLA, Harvard, and Chicago
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The bible is a formidable opponent when it comes to writing. How are you supposed to cite the different elements? How does it vary with each style? The list of questions goes on and on. However, don’t sweat it. Breaking down how to cite the Bible is as easy as A, B, C. First In-Text Citation or Parenthetical Reference There are different places that you might choose to cite the bible, and in-text...

How to Cite a PDF in MLA, APA and, Chicago
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You’ve found the best source ever, but it is a PDF. Don’t overlook it just because you are unsure of how to cite it. Find out how to cite your PDF in your references, no matter which style you are using. Citing a One Author PDF Setting up the citation in your references for a PDF is similar to an e-Book or a digital document. However, depending on different variables, like number of authors, this...

APA Style Guidelines for Multiple Authors
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Figuring out how to format your work with just one author was hard enough. Now, you have a book that has three different authors and one with eleven different authors. You know all those names are just going to clutter up your APA essay. Learn the right way to source multiple authors in the APA style. Creating a Parenthetical Citation Whether you have a book or magazine with multiple sources, the...

How to Cite a Picture in MLA
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Images add diversity and visual information that just sometimes isn’t possible with words. But how do you add it to your works cited? Learn the ins and outs of citing a picture in your work and a little about the legalities. Adding a Reproduced Image in Text Sometimes, it makes sense to visually reference images to prove a point. This is especially true if you are writing a paper about arts or...

How to Cite a Video Using MLA and APA
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With the advent of YouTube, Vimeo and other great sites, you can find short videos and how-to-videos online from a wide range of experts. This means, you might find yourself using a video to create your essays. Make your video citations ‘fabulous’ by using a few simple tricks. Style Matters Of course style matters, this is professional writing after all. However, basically each style is looking...

Correct Blog Citations Using APA, MLA, Harvard, and Chicago
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You thought that your citation game was strong. But you’ve hit a blog. Don’t stress. Blog style citations typically break down the who, when, what and where of the blog you used. Just so you are prepared for anything that comes your way, learn the formats for APA, MLA, Harvard and Chicago. How to Cite a Blog in APA Social science, education or psychology writers, listen up. This is for you. Blogs...

Citations for Quotes in APA Style
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You think adding quote citations is going to be simple. But suddenly you have one book with multiple authors and another book with no date. You’re trying to add a citation for a website quote with no author or date. Plus, you have an interview. Simple citations have become a mess. Break down citations for books, websites and even interviews in even the most difficult of situations. Book...

Accurate APA Style Interview Citations
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Interviews can add a personalized touch to your paper, since this information is not found anywhere else and comes from an expert. Since you’ve done all the hard work and conducted the interview, make sure you cite it accurately to give your paper a polished look. Adding an Interview in APA APA is a style set forth by the American Psychological Association. It ensures that all papers follow a...

Easy Ways to Cite Wikipedia
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Wikipedia is a great starting point for research. Some will caution using it as a source because the content is user generated and plagiarism issues can come into play. But it’s usually backed up with additional sources that can improve your writing. If you’re adding it to your bibliography or works cited, there are a few easy ways to accomplish this no matter what format you are using...

How to Use APA Citation With No Author
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Writing can be a fun and exciting time. Don’t let your head get all jumbled over styles. Especially, if you come across a difficult source like a blog or article with no author. Instead of losing your cool, follow these simple steps to citing sources with no author in APA. No Author, No Problem Style guides let you wrap everything up in a nice neat package. They even cover you in those sticky...

Tips on Citing a Poem in MLA Style
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Hath thou ever cited a poem before? Citing a poem in MLA format isn’t life or death, it’s simply a matter of knowing the format. Not only will your writing be flawless, but your poem quotations will be impeccable. How to Cite a Poem In-Text Poems come in all shapes and sizes. They can be the size of a novel or as few as two lines. Therefore, it makes sense that citing a poem in the text takes on...