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How to Cite a Newspaper Article in MLA With Examples
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Learn how to cite a newspaper article in MLA through clear, concise examples. Citing a newspaper article or two in your school paper allows you to include current, relevant viewpoints in your research. MLA’s latest update, MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition, developed a container system to help students figure out how to cite sources, like a newspaper article, correctly. You’ll also explore how...

APA Citation Examples for Peer Reviewed Articles
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Using peer-reviewed journal articles in your research paper is a great way to add credibility. Citing them isn’t hard either. Learn how to cite a peer-reviewed article in APA using these easy to follow examples. Journal Article With One Author Use these APA citation examples for peer-reviewed journal articles to add authority to your APA 7 research paper.  Reviewing research by peers in the...

APA Article Citation Examples
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Books can get old fast. Magazines and journals are great relevant resources to add to your APA references list. Learn how to cite an article APA using a clear explanation and several examples. Just remember, writing a reference source citation for articles in APA 7 style follows the periodical format. APA Article – Print Format Using articles published in newspapers, magazines and journals...

APA Website Citation Examples
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Using the web to find information for your APA format school paper is the easiest way for students. Since it’s easy to upload content daily or even hourly, the information is current.  Follow the APA 7 citation format for the source and add the website address at the end. Basic APA Citation Format Websites can offer a plethora of resources for your APA format paper. However, remember that...

APA Movie Citation Examples
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Although it isn’t common to make an APA movie citation in your research paper, there are times when you may need to do so. For example, you may need to create an APA film citation for a documentary about people who suffer from depression or anxiety you used in your psychology research. Therefore, it’s essential to learn how to cite a movie or documentary in APA for your reference page...

APA Magazine Article Citation Examples
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Do you need an APA magazine citation fast for your reference page? Citing a magazine in APA isn’t as hard as you think. And, magazines offer a current viewpoint of newly discovered research results. Now it’s time to learn how to make an APA magazine citation using the article title, magazine, and publication year. APA Magazine Citation for Print Magazines are phenomenal resources for...

How to Do a Chicago Style Bibliography
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Chicago style guidelines require either a full bibliography of all the works consulted during your research or a reference list of sources cited specifically in your paper. And, Turabian is a student version of Chicago style. Use this article to learn how to create a Chicago or Turabian style bibliography using easy steps. How to Create a Chicago Style Bibliography You create a Chicago style...

How to Write an APA Bibliography
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APA 7 style guidelines require a reference list of all the sources you included in your research paper. APA references follow the author-date style of citation. You may be asked to create an annotated APA bibliography, however. This could be a separate assignment or part of the larger research project. This goes above and beyond the basic reference list with a brief discussion of each entry...

APA Citation Newspaper Article Examples
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Do you need to know how to cite the Washington Post in APA? How to cite a newspaper article in APA requires the author, date, title, and location. Still, confused? Use this quick guide to learn to make an APA 7 citation for a newspaper article. How to Cite a Newspaper Article APA 7 – Print When it comes to citing a newspaper article with one author in your APA format school paper, the...

APA Journal Citation Examples
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Using journal articles in your APA 7 research paper strengthens your research. There are many ways to find journal articles, including databases and web searches. An APA journal citation follows the basic periodical format. Remember to include the URL or DOI if you use electronic sources. Journal Articles Print Citation Format The APA format for citing a journal article follows a basic author...

APA Book Citation Examples
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APA book citations might look intimidating, but they aren’t bad once you learn the basic format. APA 7 book citations include the author, publication year, book title, and publisher. Remember to use the author’s last name and then only the initials for the first and middle names. The APA in-text citation format for a book follows the author-date style, which means the year of...

APA Citation Guidelines
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APA 7 citation follows the author-date style of formatting in-text and reference list entries. In APA author-date style, the last name of the author and the first name initial is the first element. After that, the year of publication is added to the citation, followed by the rest of the source data. A citation is the combination of the in-text citation and the full source citation in the...

Chicago/Turabian Citation Styles Explained
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The Chicago style of formatting citations was developed by the University of Chicago Press. The rules are outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) 17th edition. There is also a shorter, easier version of Chicago style for students called Turabian. These rules are outlined in A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Chicago style citations consist of the author...

MLA Format Basics
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Students start writing essays in middle school English classes. Their first assignments will be short essays, like the standard five-paragraph essay. As they progress through high school and college, they will learn how to research and write longer papers for different subjects using citation style guides like MLA 8. Usually, MLA format is the first style that students learn to use. Technology...

How to Make an Outline for Your School Essay
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One way teachers help students learn to write research papers is by teaching them to create an outline of the essay before they start writing it. Some teachers require an outline submitted prior to approving the topic. It helps both the students and teachers find out if they’re on the right track before going further in the research process. Although your teacher will tell you what editorial...

APA Block Quote Format
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As you are weeding through the complex language of your APA paper, you might find yourself needing to use a long quote or a block quotation. In APA 7, direct quotations that are 40 words or longer must be set off in a block quote. Like any writing style, an APA block quote needs to follow a specific format. Learn the rules to create a perfect APA block quote in your research paper. APA Block...

Chicago Block Quote Format With Examples
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You’re just typing along in your academic paper and boom! You need to figure how to format Chicago Manual of Style block quotes. Rather than panic, learn how to block quote Chicago and Turabian style with ease. Not only will this article break down when to use block quotes in Chicago and Turabian style, but you’ll also learn how to create them for prose, verse and dialogue. Are you wondering...

MLA Block Quote Format
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Including quotations to your MLA 8 school essay or research paper adds strength to it. Quotes help the reader understand the original sources while also reinforcing your thesis. Although you don’t want to overuse long quotations in your paper, it is sometimes necessary, particularly for poems. To properly set the quote off from the rest of the paper, you’ll need to format it correctly. In MLA...

Writing a Letter in MLA, APA or Chicago Style
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Students often ask how to write a letter using MLA, APA or Chicago style. However, these editorial styles are used for research and school essay papers rather than for formal or informal business writing purposes. Difference Between Scholarly and Business Writing Different writing and editorial styles serve different purposes. Formal writing, like business writing, follows a certain format so...

Writing Numbers in MLA Style
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You’ll need to know when and how to write out numbers in your MLA 8 style school essay. The rules are easy to follow as MLA format tries to make it simple to write and organize papers in this style. Arabic or Roman Numerals Although you will use Arabic numerals (e.g., 1, 2, 3) for numbers that are not spelled out, you may use Roman numerals (e.g., I, II, III) in certain cases. For example, the...

Citing an Introduction or Afterword in MLA
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No matter what style you’re using for your school paper, you should cite from authoritative sources. Verify the information comes from a valid, authoritative source by checking the authenticity of the website, author, and/or the organization that published it. This includes citing an afterword or preface in your MLA 8 paper. Establishing Authority in Your School Paper Many times, you can...

Format an APA PowerPoint Reference Slide
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In addition to an APA 7 research paper, your teacher may also ask you to prepare a PowerPoint slideshow presentation. Just like any other research presentation, you must include proper citations of your sources for your slideshow presentation. APA In-Text Citations for PowerPoint As you prepare your PowerPoint or Prezi slideshow presentations in APA 7, you’ll need to distill your research...

How to Cite a PowerPoint Presentation in MLA
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Your instructor just gave a fabulous lecture in PowerPoint that you could use in your MLA paper. But how do you cite a PowerPoint presentation in MLA style? Learning how to format an in-text citation for PowerPoint in MLA isn’t as hard as you might think. But, it will depend on if the presentation was given during a lecture or if you found the PowerPoint online. For clarity, you’ll learn both how...

Difference Between Thesis and Purpose Statements
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As you select your topic and plan your research, you’ll need to think about your point of focus. Your instructor may ask you to write a thesis statement or a purpose statement. Sometimes you will have both in the same paper. No matter what type of style you use – MLA, APA or Chicago, – you’ll need to include thesis or purpose statements. How to Use Thesis or Purpose Statements...

How to Format Your MLA Cover Page
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Formatting your MLA 8 paper is important to the overall presentation of your paper. As part of the learning process, your teacher will require you to format your essay by following MLA rules. The cover page is critical to your overall paper, as it’s the first impression your instructor and readers will see. However, in MLA format, a formal cover page is not required. MLA Cover Page Formatting...

How to Properly Punctuate a MLA Works Cited Page
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Arranging your MLA 8 works cited page properly with the correct punctuation is an important part of finalizing your school research assignment. Your teacher will provide guidance as to any particular formatting issues; however, in general, you should adhere to the following rules. Basic Works Cited Punctuation MLA format doesn’t have a lot of fancy punctuation rules. For the most part, it’s...

Citing PowerPoint in Chicago/Turabian Style  
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What to learn how to cite a PowerPoint in Chicago? It’s common for instructors to use slideshow presentations during class lectures. It’s acceptable to use lectures as a cited source. However, it’s best to use them sparingly. Instead, find peer-reviewed journal articles or books by authoritative sources to back up your research. One way to use PowerPoint slideshow presentations in your Chicago 17...

How to Cite a Powerpoint in APA Format
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Students may find useful sources prepared in slideshow format, like in PowerPoint or Prezi. Lectures, meeting notes, and other primary sources can be found in these presentations. Just like with any other source, you must cite PowerPoint presentations correctly in your APA 7 reference list. Learn how to cite a PowerPoint presentation in APA. PowerPoint Slideshow APA Citation While citing...

Et al. and Other Latin Abbreviations
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Although we see abbreviated Latin words in articles, they can still be confusing. Sometimes, the way people use them is incorrect. Many Latin abbreviations have fallen out of common use, but are still used in scholarly writing – ibid., et al., and i.e. are frequently used in text and reference citations. Definition of et al. Et al. means “and others” in Latin. Actually, it’s an abbreviation...

Using Footnotes and Endnotes in the Same Essay
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Sometimes you may notice a book or journal article with both footnotes and endnotes. Typically, a Chicago 17 school paper will not include both; however, if you are writing a research paper that has several notes that are dense (substantive notes), you may want these as footnotes, and then you can put your source citations in your bibliography. Difference Between Substantive and Citation Source...

Citing Sources for Your Science Fair Project
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Learn how to properly credit sources for a science fair project. Citing your sources for a science fair project is done the same way as any other research paper. Your teacher will provide rubrics for the assignment and let you know what citation style you should use to format your entries. Usually, in middle and high school, students are asked to use MLA citation style, even for science projects...

Using Endnotes in a Research Paper
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The Chicago notes-biblio style uses research paper endnotes and footnotes. An endnote and a footnote serve the same purpose. These notes are short additions, clarifications, or copyright information. By placing an endnotes example outside of the text, you can provide the reader with a better experience. Learn how to write endnotes using an endnotes example in MLA, APA, and Chicago style. Using...

Citing Multiple Sources in APA With the Same Author
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You thought you had APA 7 citations in the bag. However, now you’re trying to create an APA citation for sources with the same author but a different publication year. What do you do? When you’re citing multiple works by the same author in APA, you must distinguish them by the publication year in your citations. Keep reading to learn how to create reference citations for multiple...

Creating APA Citations for Websites With No Author
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Do you want to include a website in your APA 7 style paper, but it has no author? How you cite a website in APA with no author is to use the article’s title instead. Although it is acceptable to include information from sources with no author listed in your APA website citation, make sure it at least comes from a reliable website, such as a government entity, university, or reputable...

How Is the Reference List Arranged in APA?
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Arranging your APA 7 reference list in the proper format is an integral part of completing your research paper. As you prepare and write your paper, you should compile a preliminary reference list or bibliography that contains all the information you need for your citations. Make sure all your citations are accurate and lead your reader directly to the same source you used for your paper. APA...

Chicago Annotated Bibliography Format and Example
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Chicago/Turabian 17 style bibliographies can be stressful. But, sometimes you’re required to write a Chicago style annotated bibliography too. A Chicago annotated bibliography includes your citations plus an annotation summarizing or evaluating each resource used. That’s why it’s called an annotated bibliography. To get a clear picture of how to create your annotations, explore the...

Understanding Primary and Secondary Sources
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No matter what editorial style you use for your school essay — MLA, APA or Chicago — you will need to understand the difference between primary and secondary sources. Indeed, most papers include a combination of both. It’s important to learn how to evaluate sources, so you can be sure you’re only using material and data prepared by authoritative sources. Examples of...

How to Do In-Text and Parenthetical Citations
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As you start writing your school paper, you need to include citations in the body of your work. Are they in-text citations or parenthetical citations? Actually, both terms are correct. Both “in-text” and “parenthetical citations” are terms you use for the citation you make when you directly quote or paraphrase someone else in your work. Learn what a parenthetical citation is and how to create one...

Footnotes in APA With Format Tips and Examples
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Generally, using footnotes is associated with Chicago notes-biblio style. Even so, other styles do use them sometimes. With APA 7 style, you should use footnotes only when you absolutely must. Ask your instructor for clarification. The purpose of footnotes is to add to or clarify a point. Footnotes are also used to add copyright information. Types of APA Footnotes There are two types of footnotes...

Writing a Literature Review for a College Research Paper
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When you write an APA 6 research paper, you will follow the introduction with a brief recap of the previous literature on your topic. This literature review helps guide your reader through your research process and backs up your research strategy and thesis. Literature Review Section A literature review can be a research paper on its own. The author will critically evaluate published material on...

Copyright and Fair Use for Students
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Copyright law allows for fair use by students of copyrighted permissions, but only under certain conditions. It’s important to understand how copyright law affects you as it’s a serious business. Publishers and companies spend a lot of money and legal time to protect their copyrights, trademarks and patents. With so much information available online, it’s easy to think it’s all open for your use...

How to Find Credible Sources for School Essays
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One of the most important parts of researching your school paper topic is making sure you are using credible sources for your research. There is so much information available online that it can be overwhelming at first. However, if you follow these tips, you will learn to recognize authoritative sources quickly. What Is a Source? Let’s start at the beginning. First, you’ll need to understand...

Citing Technical and Research Reports in APA
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As you research for your APA 7 style school paper, you’ll likely come across sources in the form of technical and research reports. These types of reports are useful as secondary sources. They can help you find primary sources, but you shouldn’t rely on them as the basis of your thesis. However, original qualitative and quantitative research papers are considered primary sources. Basic APA...

APA Poster Presentation, Meeting, and Symposia Citations
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Professional organizations, government agencies, and corporations often host conferences in which researchers can present new material and ideas to their peers. Conferences tend to be large multi-day events while a symposium is a smaller gathering, usually conducted in one day. Learn how to format symposia citations in APA 7 correctly to add this material to your APA citation research paper...

Citing of Six or More Multiple Authors in APA
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There comes a time when you’ll be citing multiple authors in APA style. Why? Many times, researchers in a particular field write papers together. At times, multiple authors, even twenty or more, collaborate on an extensive research paper. Creating a citation in APA with multiple authors can be confusing in your reference list, but it doesn’t need to be. Learn how to cite multiple...

APA Citations for a Thesis or Dissertation
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Learn how to cite a dissertation and thesis in APA. Why? Because using doctoral dissertations and master’s theses is a useful way to bolster your research for your APA format school paper through current, timely topics. You can also get several examples to guide you through the rules for an APA 7 citation of a dissertation and thesis for your reference list. How to Cite a Dissertation or...

Reviews and Peer Commentary APA Citations
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Although reviews of books, movies, video games, and other published entertainment are not primary sources, they can still help your research. As such, you’ll need to know how to cite reviews as part of writing your APA 7 format research paper. Learn how to cite a review, including a book review in APA. Where to Find Reviews You can find reviews in many places, including: Magazines...

Citing a Reference Book in APA
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One frequently asked question by students is how to properly cite a reference book, such as a dictionary or encyclopedia, in APA format. Reference books are useful to supplement your research. However, you should use them primarily as a secondary sources to find more primary sources to back up your thesis. That will make for a stronger APA 7 style paper. Creating an APA Citation Creating a...

Using Ibid in a Chicago Style Bibliography
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As you collect your sources and create your preliminary bibliography, you may choose to use Chicago notes-biblio style to prepare your research paper. As you’re reading through journal articles, you may notice the term “ibid.” in the notes section. It’s important to know how and when to use ibid. correctly in your bibliography. What is Ibid? In past years, it was common to use...

How to Cite the Bible in a Chicago Style Bibliography
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Most citation styles do not require a bibliographic entry to cite the Bible and other scared works. This includes Chicago author-date or notes-biblio style. However, you do need to create an in-text or parenthetical citation in your paper when referencing the Bible. Creating Biblical Citations While creating biblical citations, include the abbreviated name of the book, the chapter number, and the...