Learn and Generate Bibliographies, Citations, and Works Cited

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APA Style Guide With Referencing and Formatting Tips
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Although APA style is used primarily in college and post-graduate studies, it is possible that your high school instructors will ask you to use this editorial style. APA follows the author-date citation format, which makes it easy to follow sources by looking for the author and the year of publication.  Overview of APA Style APA style was developed by the American Psychological Association to...

Chicago/Turabian Citation Styles Explained
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The Chicago style of formatting citations was developed by the University of Chicago Press. The rules are outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS). There is also a shorter, easier version of Chicago style for students called Turabian. These rules are outlined in A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Chicago/Turabian citation styles consist of the author-date...

Simple Chicago/Turabian Style Guide
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Chicago style is used in writing research papers. Most students learn about this editorial style in college or post-graduate work. The terms Chicago and Turabian are often used interchangeably by teachers, which may cause some confusion. Turabian is a student version of Chicago style; they follow the same format. Although it’s unlikely middle or high school students will use...

Easy MLA Style Guide for Students
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As you enter middle and high school English classes, you will be asked to write papers in the MLA style. Using MLA may seem confusing at first; however, as you gain skills, you’ll realize that writing in this style actually helps you organize your paper, do research and avoid plagiarism. Understanding MLA style is the first step to a successful research writing experience. Overview of MLA...

Chicago/Turabian Citation Basics
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Students encounter several different citation styles for formatting essays and research papers. However, even though there are editorial citation styles for every research field, students will primarily use three styles: APA, MLA and Chicago/Turabian. Chicago/Turabian Format Published by the University of Chicago Press, Chicago style is the most extensive of the three citation styles. The Chicago...

MLA Format Basics
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Students start writing essays in middle school English classes. Their first assignments will be short essays, like the standard five-paragraph essay. As they progress through high school and college, they will learn how to research and write longer papers for different subjects. Teachers who assign these papers will ask for a certain citation style. Usually, MLA format is the first style that...

APA Citation Format Guidelines and Examples
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As students enter middle school, they start learning how to research and format essays. As they progress through high school, this writing and research process becomes more complicated. This may include learning the basic format for an APA style citation. Before this, though, students must learn about the need to correctly cite the sources they use in their writing. Understanding the reasons...

How to Make an Outline for Your School Essay
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One way teachers help students learn to write research papers is by teaching them to create an outline of the essay before they start writing it. Some teachers require an outline submitted prior to approving the topic. It helps both the students and teachers find out if they’re on the right track before going further in the research process. Although your teacher will tell you what editorial...

APA Block Quote Format
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APA style papers are written for social science fields such as psychology. As such, the material tends to be complex using high language. When you’re preparing your APA paper, you may find yourself using longer quotations from other researchers to strengthen your argument. Using long quotations is acceptable in APA style. These style rules require that any direct quotations that are 40 words or...

Chicago Block Quote Format With Examples
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Adding quotations from books and plays can be an important part of your paper. Quotations strengthen your argument or add emphasis to a discussion about an author’s writing style or genre. The Chicago style block quote format is the same for both author-date and notes style. You can even incorporate quotations within a note, if needed. However, most school and college essays do not require that...

MLA Block Quote Format
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Including quotations to your MLA school essay or research paper adds strength to it. Quotes help the reader understand the original sources while also reinforcing your thesis. Although you don’t want to overuse long quotations in your paper, it is sometimes necessary, particularly for poems. To properly set the quote off from the rest of the paper, you’ll need to format it correctly. In MLA, use...

Writing a Letter in MLA, APA or Chicago Style
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Students often ask if they should write letters following MLA, APA or Chicago style. However, these editorial styles are used for research and school essay papers rather than for formal or informal business writing purposes. Difference Between Scholarly and Business Writing Different writing and editorial styles serve different purposes. Formal writing, like business writing, follows a certain...

Writing Numbers in MLA Style
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You’ll need to know when and how to write out numbers in your MLA style school essay. The rules are easy to follow as MLA tries to make it simple to write and organize papers in this style. Arabic or Roman Numerals Although you will use Arabic numerals (e.g., 1, 2, 3) for numbers that are not spelled out, you may use Roman numerals (e.g., I, II, III) in certain cases. For example, the...

Citing an Introduction or Afterword in MLA
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No matter what style you’re using for your school paper, you should cite from authoritative sources. Verify the information comes from a valid, authoritative source by checking the authenticity of the website, author, and/or the organization that published it. This includes citing an afterword or preface in your MLA paper. Establishing Authority in Your School Paper Many times, you can tell...

Format an APA PowerPoint Reference Slide
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In addition to an APA research paper, your teacher may also ask you to prepare a PowerPoint slideshow presentation. Just like any other research presentation, you must include proper citations of your sources for your PowerPoint or Prezi slideshow presentation. APA In-Text Citations for PowerPoint As you prepare your slideshow presentations, you’ll need to distill your research points down...

How to Cite a PowerPoint Presentation in MLA
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It’s pretty common to have a slideshow presentation in a meeting or classroom lecture. These visuals help attendees view graphs and follow along with the lecturer. It also makes it a little easier to take notes. Many times, presentations are even uploaded to websites for later viewing. If you want to reference a PowerPoint presentation in your MLA paper, you’ll need to know how to cite it...

Difference Between Thesis and Purpose Statements
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As you select your topic and plan your research, you’ll need to think about your point of focus. Your instructor may ask you to write a thesis statement or a purpose statement. Sometimes you will have both in the same paper. No matter what type of style you use – MLA, APA or Chicago, – you’ll need to include thesis or purpose statements. How to Use Thesis or Purpose Statements...

How to Format Your MLA Cover Page
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Formatting your MLA paper is important to the overall presentation of your paper. As part of the learning process, your teacher will require you to format your essay by following MLA rules. The cover page is critical to your overall paper, as it’s the first impression your instructor and readers will see. However, in MLA, a formal cover page is not required. MLA Cover Page Formatting Rules...

How to Properly Punctuate a MLA Works Cited Page
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Arranging your MLA works cited page properly with the correct punctuation is an important part of finalizing your school research assignment. Your teacher will provide guidance as to any particular formatting issues; however, in general, you should adhere to the following rules. Basic Works Cited Punctuation MLA doesn’t have a lot of fancy punctuation rules. For the most part, it’s simply using...

Citing PowerPoint in Chicago/Turabian Style  
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It’s common for instructors to use slideshow presentations during class lectures. It’s acceptable to use lectures as a cited source. However, it’s best to use them sparingly. Instead, find peer-reviewed journal articles or books by authoritative sources to back up your research. One way to use PowerPoint slideshow presentations in your Chicago paper is to review the bibliography for the lecture...

How to Cite a Powerpoint in APA Format
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Students may find useful sources prepared in slideshow format, like in PowerPoint or Prezi. Lectures, meeting notes and other primary sources can be found in these presentations. Just like with any other source, you must cite PowerPoint presentations correctly in your APA reference list. PowerPoint Slideshow APA Citation While citing lectures, meeting notes or other slideshow presentations...

Et al. and Other Latin Abbreviations
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Although we see abbreviated Latin words in articles, they can still be confusing. Sometimes, the way people use them is incorrect. Many Latin abbreviations have fallen out of common use, but are still used in scholarly writing – ibid., et al., and i.e. are frequently used in text and reference citations. Definition of et al. Et al. means “and others” in Latin. Actually, it’s an abbreviation...

Using Footnotes and Endnotes in the Same Essay
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Sometimes you may notice a book or journal article with both footnotes and endnotes. Typically, a school paper will not include both; however, if you are writing a research paper that has several notes that are dense (substantive notes), you may want these as footnotes, and then you can put your source citations in your bibliography. Difference Between Substantive and Citation Source Notes...

Citing Sources for Your Science Fair Project
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Citing your sources for a science fair project is done the same way as any other research paper. Your teacher will provide rubrics for the assignment and let you know what citation style you should use to format your entries. Usually, in middle and high school, students are asked to use MLA citation style, even for science projects. MLA style is easy to use with the new revised guidelines of...

Using Endnotes in a Research Paper
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The Chicago notes-biblio style uses endnotes and footnotes. An endnote and a footnote serve the same purpose. The difference is placement: a footnote is at the bottom of the page, whereas an endnote belongs at the end of a paper, book or chapter. These notes are short additions, clarifications or copyright information. By placing them outside of the text, you can provide the reader with a better...

Difference Between a Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography
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As students enter the research writing world, they have to learn a whole new language about theses, bibliographies, secondary sources, and other new terms. Some students may not understand the difference between an abstract, an annotated bibliography entry, and a literature review. The confusion is understandable as there are many similarities in these aspects of report writing. First of all...

Citing Multiple Sources in APA With the Same Author
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As you conduct research on a particular topic, you will come across the same authors who publish frequently. Researchers tend to focus on a particular area and continue to publish within it. When you have multiple sources by the same author, you’ll need to distinguish between them in your APA citations. Also, it’s important you check publication dates to make sure you are following the most...

Creating APA Citations for Websites With No Author
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When you come across a relevant article published on a website, you may want to include it as a source for your APA paper. Unfortunately, many times online articles may not have an author byline. The way to format APA citations with no author is to use the article’s title instead. Although it is acceptable to include information from sources with no author listed, make sure it at least...

How Is the Reference List Arranged in APA?
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Arranging your APA reference list in the proper format is an important part of completing your research paper. As you prepare and write your paper, you should compile a preliminary reference list or bibliography that contains all the information you need for your citations. Make sure all your citations are accurate and lead your reader directly to the same source you used for your paper. APA...

Abstracts vs. Annotated Bibliographies With Examples
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Sometimes students are assigned to write annotated bibliographies as standalone assignments. This is a good exercise to learn how to research and evaluate sources. Some students may wonder if abstracts are the same as annotated bibliographies. Others may wonder if they need to include an abstract with the annotated bibliography. Although the two appear similar on the surface, each serves a...

Chicago Annotated Bibliography Format and Example
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Bibliographies are an important part of a Chicago style research paper. At the end of your paper, you are required to include a bibliography of the sources you consulted. Unlike a works cited or reference list, you include all the works you consulted for research, not just the ones you cited in your paper. What Is an Annotated Bibliography? An annotated bibliography is a list of relevant sources...

Understanding Primary and Secondary Sources
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No matter what editorial style you use for your school essay — APA, Chicago, or MLA — you will need to understand the difference between primary and secondary sources. Indeed, most papers include a combination of both. It’s important to learn how to evaluate sources, so you can be sure you’re only using material and data prepared by authoritative sources. Examples of...

How to Do In-Text and Parenthetical Citations
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As you start researching and writing your school paper, you’ll notice discussion about in-text citations and parenthetical citations. You may wonder if these are two different things and get confused about how to use them. These citations are also sometimes called “internal” citations; however, the commonly used terms are “in-text” or “parenthetical.”...

Footnotes in APA With Format Tips and Examples
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Generally, using footnotes is associated with Chicago notes-biblio style. Even so, other styles do use them sometimes. With APA style, you should use footnotes only when you absolutely must. Ask your instructor for clarification. The purpose of footnotes is to add to or clarify a point. Footnotes are also used to add copyright information. Types of APA Footnotes There are two types of footnotes...

Writing a Literature Review for a College Research Paper
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When you write an APA research paper, you will follow the introduction with a brief recap of the previous literature on your topic. This literature review helps guide your reader through your research process and backs up your research strategy and thesis. Literature Review Section A literature review can be a research paper on its own. The author will critically evaluate published material on a...

Copyright and Fair Use for Students
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Copyright law allows for fair use by students of copyrighted permissions, but only under certain conditions. It’s important to understand how copyright law affects you as it’s a serious business. Publishers and companies spend a lot of money and legal time to protect their copyrights, trademarks and patents. With so much information available online, it’s easy to think it’s all open for your use...

How to Find Credible Sources for School Essays
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One of the most important parts of researching your school paper topic is making sure you are using credible sources for your research. There is so much information available online that it can be overwhelming at first. However, if you follow these tips, you will learn to recognize authoritative sources quickly. What Is a Source? Let’s start at the beginning. First, you’ll need to understand...

Citing Technical and Research Reports in APA
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As you research for your APA school paper, you’ll likely come across sources in the form of technical and research reports. These types of reports are useful as secondary sources. They can help you find primary sources, but you shouldn’t rely on them as the basis of your thesis. However, original qualitative and quantitative research papers are considered primary sources. Basic APA Citation...

APA Poster Presentation, Meeting, and Symposia Citations
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Professional organizations, government agencies, and corporations often host conferences in which researchers can present new material and ideas to their peers. Conferences tend to be large multi-day events while a symposium is a smaller gathering, usually conducted in one day. Learn how to format symposia citations correctly to add this material to your APA research paper. Using Meeting...

Citing of Six or More Multiple Authors in APA
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Many times, researchers in a particular field will write papers together. At times, multiple authors, even eight or more, will collaborate on an extensive research paper. This can be confusing while creating your APA reference list, but it doesn’t need to be. Creating Reference List Entries for Multiple Authors When a source has multiple authors, follow this format for your APA citation...

APA Citations for a Thesis or Dissertation
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Using doctoral dissertations and master’s theses is a useful way to bolster your research for your school paper. As post graduate students are required to do original research for their theses, these sources cover current, timely topics. Follow the examples below for how to format thesis citations for your APA references list. Doctoral Dissertation and Master’s Thesis Sources Teachers prefer that...

Reviews and Peer Commentary APA Citations
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Although reviews of books, movies, video games and other published entertainment are not primary sources, they can still be helpful in your research. As such, you’ll need to know how to cite reviews as part of writing your APA research paper. Where to Find Reviews You can find reviews in many places, including: Magazines Newspapers Websites Blogs Even your local small-town newspaper...

Citing a Reference Book in APA
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One frequently asked question by students is how to properly cite a reference book, such as a dictionary or encyclopedia, in APA style. Reference books are useful to supplement your research. However, you should use them primarily as a secondary sources to find more primary sources to back up your thesis. That will make for a stronger paper. Creating an APA Citation Creating a reference book...

Using Ibid in a Chicago Style Bibliography
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As you collect your sources and create your preliminary bibliography, you may choose to use Chicago notes-biblio style to prepare your research paper. As you’re reading through journal articles, you may notice the term “ibid.” in the notes section. It’s important to know how and when to use ibid. correctly in your bibliography. What is Ibid? In past years, it was common to use...

How to Cite the Bible in a Chicago Style Bibliography
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Most citation styles do not require a bibliographic entry to cite the Bible and other scared works. This includes Chicago author-date or notes-biblio style. However, you do need to create an in-text or parenthetical citation in your paper when referencing the Bible. Creating Biblical Citations While creating biblical citations, include the abbreviated name of the book, the chapter number, and the...

Arranging Numbers in Works Cited List
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When writing a school paper in MLA style, you will need to know how to format your works cited page. Hopefully, you’ve created a working or preliminary bibliography as you did your research. Now, you simply take your preliminary works cited page and start arranging it as required. One common question is whether numbers come before letters. The quick answer is “no.” Instead, follow...

MLA Works Cited for Movies, Films, and TV Shows
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If you’re writing a school essay using MLA style and need to cite films, movies or television shows, you can do so easily. MLA 8 is designed to be flexible to accommodate different platforms and versions. The container system enables you to emphasize relevant details, so your citations will always be on point. Films or Movies? “Films” and “movies” are synonymous, so you...

How to Cite the Bible in MLA Works Cited
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Most citation styles, such as APA and Chicago/Turabian, do not require you to include entries for the Bible in bibliographies or reference lists. MLA style, on the other hand, does require a works cited entry. Cite the Bible or other religious texts using the MLA container system. Creating an MLA Entry for a Bible Source Using the nine core elements of MLA style, the first element will be the...

Citing an Anthology in MLA Works Cited Pages
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Anthologies are collections of writings published in a book or journal. The writings center around a similar theme, time or subject matter. Oftentimes, this involves various authors. However, collections of poems or short stories by the same author are also anthologies. How you cite an anthology in MLA style depends on whether you are referencing the whole anthology or a single entry in it. Types...

Creating Hanging Indents for a MLA Works Cited
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As you organize your MLA works cited list, you will notice that each entry should be formatted with hanging indents. If you’re not familiar with this term, you may feel puzzled and unsure what to do next. Thankfully, it’s actually quite straightforward. The Hanging Indent Explained A hanging indent simply means that the second line is indented five spaces from the first line. If your works...