Learn and Generate Bibliographies, Citations, and Works Cited

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How to Avoid Plagiarism in Your School Essay
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Copyright law is extensive and complicated. This article gives a brief overview of copyright law and how it affects students but for specific questions, you should ask your teacher. A general rule in writing school essays or developing research projects is to always credit your sources to avoid plagiarism. Fair Use guidelines allow basic use of works for students and teachers. Some Basic...

Sample Bibliography for an Anthropology Essay
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If you are writing an anthropology essay on the Navajo people, you may choose to talk about housing structures. This  Chicago/Turabian author-date style Sample Bibliography provides five resources for you to start researching this subject. References Drover, Christopher E. 1985. “Navajo Settlement and Architecture in Southeastern California.” Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 7...

Finding Public Domain Sources for Your Class Essay
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Are you looking for primary sources for your humanities or social studies school projects? Primary sources are original materials or research and secondary sources are those materials that talk about primary sources. For example, an autobiography is a primary source and a biography is a secondary source. One great place to find primary sources are websites that digitize materials placed in public...

Creating a Bibliography for an Anthropology Essay
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Learning about cultures helps students understand how social and family bonds are formed. It helps students empathize with other cultures. Studying anthropology is a broad area and there are many topics to chose from within this subject. Generally, this subject is an elective, but you will learn many interesting things if you chose this course. What is Anthropology? Anthropology is defined as the...

Preparing a Chicago Author-Date Essay Outline
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One of the first steps to writing a college or high school essay or research paper is creating an outline. Why Create an Essay Outline Part of your assignment Your teacher may include an outline as part of the assignment. If the paper is long, often instructors will ask for an outline as the first part of the assignment. This allows s/he to track your progress. Helps you stay organized Starting a...

Writing a Social Studies Essay
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Social Studies classes are required classes in high school and college. You probably have taken several social studies classes throughout your school years. As you graduate into higher level social studies classes, you will be required to prepare research papers about various subjects. Most instructors require either MLA style or Chicago style for your social studies papers. What Does Social...

How to Write a History School Paper in Chicago Style
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You may feel overwhelmed looking at your history paper assignment. Wondering where to start? It’s easy if you plan your school project before you get started on it. First of all, review the assignment so you understand it before you start. Although your instructor will give you specific guidelines, you can adapt these steps to complete your assignment. Select Your Topic If your instructor gives...

Footnotes or Endnotes?
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If you are writing your college paper using the notes-biblio style or if your teacher asks you to include notes in your paper, you need to know the difference between footnotes and endnotes. Typically, notes are included in Chicago notes-biblio style, but you may include them in an MLA or APA citation style school project if your instructor requires them. The difference is simple: Place footnotes...

Preparing to Write MLA College Papers
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Learning to research and write MLA college papers is an essential skill as you leave the comfort of high school classes. One frequent complaint by college professors is that high school students come unprepared for college level writing. Gearing high school classes towards standardized tests encourages teachers to teach the five-paragraph essay rather than writing research papers. College Writing...

When to Use Chicago Notes
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You have your research topic ready to go and you have written your basic outline for your paper. Now what? You look at your assignment instructions and realize your instructor requires using the notes style. What does that even mean? Understanding the use of notes style is important as you begin your college writing journey. What is Notes-Biblio? Notes style or notes-biblio style is part of the...

Using Note Cards for MLA Research Papers
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In today’s digital age, it seems strange that organizing your research sources would be done on index cards. Instead of a mobile app or Google Doc, writing your sources on separate 3 X 5 index cards may still be a better way to help organize your citation sources. Although some teachers provide Word document templates that follow the same pattern, having the cards available makes it easier to...

Difference Between Five-Paragraph Essay and MLA Paper
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In high school, you’ll learn how to write a five-paragraph essay. This skill comes in handy as you learn to develop a thesis statement and organize an essay. Writing a five-paragraph essay is a part of standardized testing, which means it is a useful skill to learn. Organizing a Five-Paragraph Essay When you write a five-paragraph essay, you follow these steps: Introductory paragraph including...

Writing MLA Thesis Statements
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Writing a thesis statement for your MLA style school paper seems intimidating to high school and college students. You may have practice in understanding thesis statements when you prepared five-paragraph essays. Maybe you have even written short five page research papers in your English classes. Writing MLA College Papers However, now you are entering college and you will be writing a lot of...

Understanding APA Literature Reviews
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Teachers often assign research papers to students, especially literature reviews. Literature reviews may be part of a larger research paper or stand alone on their own. Since conducting original research and writing a paper about it takes considerable time, instructors often require students prepare papers such as compare and contrast, critical essays or literature reviews instead. What is a...

APA References, Works Cited and Bibliography Differences
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As we have learned in other articles on this site, there is a difference between the way references are cited. It all depends on what citation style your teacher asks you to use while you’re preparing your school project bibliography. Differences of Style Many people use the terms ‘works cited’, “reference list” and “bibliography” interchangeably, but there are differences. First of all, it...

Creating a School Project in APA Style
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In high school, your instructor typically asks you to write a critical essay or a short research paper on a current event or interesting person. Writing in MLA style and creating a Works Cited page for your references, works well for these papers.  However, if you take psychology or sociology classes in high school or college, you may be asked to write a paper using APA style. Understanding APA...

Developing an APA Annotated Bibliography
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APA Style uses an author-date reference list rather than a bibliography format to cite research sources. A reference list, unlike a bibliography, includes only those sources you cited within your school research paper. Each in-text citation matches a reference list entry. Starting the APA Annotated Bibliography However, your instructor may ask you to develop an annotated bibliography in APA style...

Writing APA Abstracts for a Literature Review
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While developing your APA style school research paper, follow the specific formatting guidelines to finalize your paper. This citation example focuses on writing abstracts for an APA style paper. Learning to write abstracts is a good skill as it helps you develop the ability to summarize the important points in your paper. A busy student can read abstracts to determine if it’s worth the time to...

Citing Visual and Performing Arts in Chicago Author-Date Style
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You may use MLA style to write about art in high school but there is a good chance you’ll be using Chicago/Turabian style in college. If you are writing exclusively about an artist or art history, you will probably be asked to use the Chicago notes-biblio style. The notes-biblio style is ideal for writing about music, history and art because you add notes throughout the text. This allows your...

Citing Audio and Video in Chicago Author Date Style
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While you are researching for your history paper, you will come across many multimedia sources. As primary sources such as photographs and recordings become fragile with age, libraries and other institutions are archiving these precious materials online. Many of these sources are available free through government repositories such as the Library of Congress. Universities, academic and public...

Using Journal Articles in Chicago Author Date Style
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Using scholarly journal articles in your research paper is a great way to build up your authoritative sources. Scholarly journals are indexed in databases, such as EBSCO and OCLC. Although many of these academic databases are fee-based, usually your school, college or public library offers free access to students. There are also open-source scholarly journals such as San Jose State University’s...

Citing Reference Works in Chicago Author-Date Style
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You will see the term “reference work “used frequently while doing your research for your school project. But what exactly are reference works? We usually think of dictionaries and encyclopedias when we hear that term; however, other works such as indices, almanacs and catalogs fall under that category. Some reference works are even guides to other reference works. Basically, a reference work is...

Creating Chicago Author-Date Entries For Online Sources
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Creating entries in Chicago/Turabian author-date style is easier than the notes-biblio style. The notes-biblio style works well for research papers where you need to give your reader a lot of background information. However, the author-date style works better for research papers when the primary method of directing your reader to your source is by providing the name of the creator of the work and...

Creating Notes-Biblio Entries for Magazines and Newspaper Articles
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Using magazine and news articles in your school research paper shows variety in your bibliography. Articles are shorter in length and found online easily, although you may wish to visit your library in person. Bringing a full-length book to print takes time and by the time a book is published, there may be updates to the research. Journal articles are published faster; however, it does take time...

Using Journal Articles in Notes-Biblio Style
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After you finish your research for your school paper, you will notice you have several sources obtained from research journal articles. Journal articles are great sources for finding current sources. Your college offers free access to several databases, such as ProQuest or JSTOR. If you don’t have access through your school, ask the reference librarian at your local library to help you. The best...

Using Chicago Notes-Biblio Style for Books
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Citation styles, like Chicago, allow for some variations in creating entries. If you have looked at a bibliography at the end of a research article, you will see that bibliographies are created differently. It is still important that you follow the basic format and, you definitely need to use consistency in your entries.  The main purpose of creating bibliographic entries is to lead your reader...

Creating a Bibliography in the Notes-Biblio Chicago Style
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Even though the notes (either footnotes or endnotes) section throughout your paper gives a lot of detail about your sources, you will still need to create a list of your bibliographical entries. There are some exceptions, usually depending on what the publisher or your instructor has in mind. Creating a Citation When you use the notes-biblio style, it’s important that you have a corresponding...

Citing Visual & Performing Arts in Notes-Biblio
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As you research a topic for your art or history class, you may land upon a topic referring to plays, musical scores and/or art exhibition catalogs. For example, if your art history instructor asks you to choose a subject on the Italian Renaissance, you have a wide range of topics to pursue from exploring the highlights of the period to Leonardo da Vinci’s life. It is best if you pick a few ideas...

Creating Notes-Biblio Entries for Multi-Media
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Writing your research paper starts with finding your sources. When you’re writing a paper on history or the arts, it is likely you’ll be using either MLA style or Chicago/Turabian Notes-Biblio Style. Typically, articles on psychology or other social sciences will not have a lot of art sources and you will use author-date citation styles such as APA or Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style. MLA and...

Citing Reference Works in Notes-Biblio Style
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As you gather your sources for your school research paper, you may consult reference works such as dictionaries, textbooks or encyclopedias. Reference works can be important to your paper; however, they are secondary rather than primary sources and supplement your primary research, not replace it.  Depending on the subject of your paper, you may use more secondary sources than usual and will want...

Creating Notes Biblio Entries for Online Sources
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As you develop your research paper in the Chicago Notes-Biblio style, try to use print sources as well as online sources. You may find material originally created in the print form, particularly scholarly journal articles, published in databases such as ProQuest. Generally, online databases require a paid subscription, but your school, college or public library provides access to most sources...

Sectioning Your Bibliography in Notes-Biblio Style
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Creating a bibliography guides your readers to all the sources you have consulted or used in research. As you prepare your research paper, you look for sources that will back up your thesis statement. You may realize as you work through this process, that you need to revise your thesis or the way you present your arguments. Developing a preliminary or working bibliography allows you to gather...

Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Citation Elements
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As you’re researching your sources for your Chicago/Turabian author-date styled research paper, prepare for your reference list by thinking ahead. It’s overwhelming when faced with the daunting research needed for your paper. You can make your life easier by creating a preliminary or working bibliography of all your sources. Information to Include in Citations As you gather bibliographic sources...

Entries to Include in Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style
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As you gather your sources for your school research paper, you remember to include every piece of information. While preparing your Chicago Author-Date reference list, you want to make sure to give credit where credit is due. This is a cornerstone of research for several reasons. Not only do you have to give credit to the original creator, but you need to direct your reader to your sources for...

Creating MLA 8 In-Text Citations
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Students often use terms such as reference, citation and bibliography interchangeably, but there are differences in these terms. A bibliography (or reference list) is the list of all the sources you used to create your paper. The citation is actually the combination of your in-text source, which then refers the reader to the full entry listed at the end of your paper. This list, titled a...

Using MLA Containers
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As you learn about using MLA for citing your sources, you’ll notice a new term ‘container’. You may wonder what that means for you as you create your works cited page. There’s a simple reason why MLA developed the container style. While updating the MLA Handbook, the editors realized they needed to create an easier way to format entries. Since information is found in so many sources and methods...

MLA: Understanding the Core Elements of Works Cited
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MLA Style is designed to be flexible since it’s used in the arts and humanities. The Eighth Edition of MLA Handbook provides an easy way to create entries for different sources, such as artworks, videos and printed materials. MLA Elements There are nine elements to each entry in an MLA Works Cited list. The Eighth Edition has revised these elements so if your instructor requires to you to use the...

Using the Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style for Books
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Depending on the type of Chicago style you are using, you’ll either create a notes-biblio style bibliography or an author-date style reference list. The author-date style is used a lot in the natural and physical sciences plus social sciences. In this style, the author’s name and the date of publication are considered the best way to identify the sources you’ve used to create your paper. Using...

Understanding Chicago Notes-Biblio Style vs. Author-Date Style
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Even though the notes-biblio and author-date styles both come from the Chicago/Turabian style guide, there are critical differences between the two styles. Once you’ve selected the style you want to use, follow the format carefully. Both the in-text citation and its corresponding bibliographic entry are formatted differently. Understanding Notes-Biblio Style Because the notes- biblio style allows...

MLA 8th Edition Abbreviations and Acronyms
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You may use abbreviations in your Works Cited list but when you are writing your paper, you should always spell out the words. Instead of using abbreviations such as etc., i.e. and e.g., write them out. For example, instead of using e.g., write out “for example”.  When you use acronyms in your paper, write them out first then put the acronym in parentheses. You may then use the acronym throughout...

Creating a Chicago/Turabian Style Reference List
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If you used the author-date Chicago/Turabian style while creating your paper instead of the notes-biblio style, you will need to create a reference list rather than a bibliography. The reference list is basically the same as the bibliography; however, you’ll title the page References and you do not need to include all the sources you consulted. You do need to include all the sources that you...

MLA 7th Edition vs MLA 8th Edition
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As you start to prepare your paper in MLA Style, you realize you don’t know if you should use the seventh edition or the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook. You may think there’s not much difference but, in this case, a shift in creating entries for your Works Cited list took place with the publication of the eighth edition. In 2016, the Modern Language Association (MLA) decided it was time to...

Alphabetizing Your  MLA Works Cited List
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You finally have your research paper finished and your sources created into entries and now you can start putting it all together. You’re almost done. Alphabetizing your MLA Works Cited list is easy as it follows the letter by letter method. Read on to understand how this method works when you’re dealing with multiple authors, no author or other cases. List Items Alphabetically  The first step is...

Organizing a MLA Works Cited List
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Unlike a bibliography, a Works Cited list is created to list only the sources you cited in your research paper. Every citation in your paper should match up to an entry in your Works Cited list, which means you need to review your paper to make sure the in-text citations are properly sourced at the end of your paper. If your instructor asks you to prepare a bibliography in MLA style, title it...

Using 3- em Dash in Chicago/Turabian
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While developing your Chicago/Turabian style bibliography or reference list, you may use the 3-em dash method for multiple works by the same author. In the author-date style you will use the publication date to organize your  entries by the same author (or editor, translator).  If you are using the notes-biblio style, you will organize your entries by the title of the work. Creating a 3-em Dash A...

How to Cite Legal Sources in APA
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If you’re using legal sources in your report and are trying to figure out how to fit them into your reference list, you’ll probably feel somewhat confused because, for the most part, APA follows The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation style. However, in some cases, you’ll still follow APA guidelines. Bluebook or APA APA recommends that references to legal materials, such as statutes, court...

APA Reference List: Periodical Examples
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APA Reference List: Periodical Examples. 6th Edition Periodicals are materials that are published on a regular basis. For example, magazines, newsletters, journals may be published daily, weekly, monthly or other regularly scheduled dates. Periodicals follow a general format in your APA report with a few differences. Newspaper articles citations include the year of publication as well as the day;...

How to Alphabetize Your APA Reference List
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You’ve finished your paper and have your references organized and ready to place into your Reference List. You know it needs to be in alphabetical order so that’s pretty easy…a, b, c….  Or is it? But wait! You have three separate works written by the same author and two articles written by people with the same last name, different first names. Okay, so this isn’t as easy as it seems at first...

APA Book Reference Examples
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APA Reference List Citation Examples Creating APA citations for print and ebooks is simple once you understand the format. APA uses the author-date system, which means the author’s last name, first initial and the date of publication are the most important elements of the citation. Citing Print Books in APA Style BOOK (PRINT) One author Author, A.A. (2001). Title of work. Location:...

Using a DOI® Link
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You’re gathering your resources together when suddenly you notice that several of your online journal articles aren’t linked to a web address (URL.) What is that mysterious notation at the end of the citation?  You’re used to seeing a link to an online article in this way:   Then all of the sudden, this doi® number shows up: doi: 130.065.109.155. What does this mean? The Difference...