Learn and Generate Bibliographies, Citations, and Works Cited

CategoryChicago/Turabian Format

Chicago Format Style covers citation format for history, physical, natural and social sciences. It is published by the University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS), 17th edition is over a thousand pages, including its bibliography. Fortunately, there is a shorter, student version of CMOS available. This student version is often called Turabian style after the author of A Manual for Writers, Kate L. Turabian.

Chicago or CMOS consists of two different styles. One style is an author-date style, which is simple to use. The author-date style is used in physical, natural and social sciences. Students will use the author-date style for school projects, in most cases.

The second style is notes-biblio style. Notes-biblio is an extensive notes bibliographic style. Notes can be formatted as endnotes or footnotes.  Chicago/Turabian is used for history, literature and the arts. Note numbers are placed within the text, then information about the source is placed at the end of the chapter or at the bottom of the page. Each note is cited within a bibliography at the end of the paper.

Source

The Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition text © 2017 by The University of Chicago.

Chicago Style Citations and Format
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Writing your first academic paper in Chicago 17 format can be a real nail biter. Not only is the official manual massive, but it can be difficult to know which Chicago style citations to use. Breeze through your essay by breaking down the Chicago and Turabian style format into digestible chunks with a straightforward and comprehensive guide. Should You Use Chicago Style? College writing is never...

Why Are Proper Citations Important in Academic Writing?
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As students begin writing papers for English and history classes, they learn about citing sources. At first, writing proper citations in academic writing seems confusing and strange. You might even think it’s a waste of time! However, as you continue to write your papers, it becomes clear why you must include citations in your research papers and essays. Understanding Style Guides When your...

Turabian Bible Citation Examples
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Studying Turabian Bible citation examples will help you understand how to format these sources for your school paper. Turabian style is the student version of the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) 17th edition. This shorter manual makes it easy for students writing humanities or science papers to create bibliographies. Author/Date Citation Examples Turabian format requires you include citations for...

Chicago In-Text Website Citation Examples
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As you’re writing your humanities or science paper in Chicago 17 style, you’ll need to create both an in-text citation and a source citation for a website. Depending on whether your teacher asks for notes-bibliography or author-date formatting, you’ll append either a bibliography or a reference list to your paper. Before you even start writing, check your assignment rubric for instructions on...

Chicago Citations for Television Shows Examples
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Add some visual sources to your history paper and follow these examples of Chicago 17 citations for television shows. TV shows offer timely glimpses of current events and present new twists on historical events. Do a little background research on these shows to check the facts. You want to use authoritative sources to write your school paper. Television Show Citations in Chicago Author-Date Style...

Chicago Citation for Movie Examples
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When you include films as part of the references of bibliography of your history paper, be sure to follow these Chicago movie citation examples. Depending on your teacher’s guidelines, you’ll either use the notes-bibliography or author-date style. Movie Citation Examples in Chicago Author-Date Chicago’s writing style not only comes in two referencing types but two styles. The student...

Chicago Anthology Examples
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Anthologies can be great sources of information for your Chicago 17 style history paper. Follow these Chicago style citation anthology examples to ensure your citations are accurate and correctly formatted. For citing anthologies with multiple authors or editors, follow these book citation examples. Chicago style comes in both author-date and notes-bibliography formats, so follow your assignment...

Chicago Newspaper Citation Examples
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Following these Chicago newspaper citation examples helps you add current events to your school paper. Your teacher may assign a history paper that requires a Chicago 17 style format. After you find out if you need to use the author-date style or notes-bibliography style, refer to these easy citation formats to create your reference page or bibliography. Format for Chicago Newspaper Citation ...

Chicago Style Article Citation Examples
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These Chicago 17 style article citation examples will illustrate the basic format you should follow for your paper. Using newspaper, magazine and journal articles supplies updated data for your research sources. Published regularly, these periodicals provide current research for your school paper. Follow these examples for Chicago’s two citation styles. How to Cite a Newspaper in Chicago Style...

Chicago Magazine Article Citation Examples
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It’s helpful to follow these Chicago 17 magazine article citation examples as this style for citing sources uses two very different formats. The author-date style collects sources in a reference list, whereas the notes-bibliography style uses a bibliography. While writing entries in the author-date style, place the author’s name and date in the first two elements. If your teacher requires...

Chicago Journal Citation Examples
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Use these Chicago 17 journal citation examples while formatting your bibliography entries. Adding peer-reviewed articles to your school paper research helps to support your thesis argument. Follow your teacher’s instructions to use either Chicago notes-bibliography or Chicago author-date style. Chicago Journal Citation Format With Examples When it comes to Chicago citations, use this basic format...

Chicago Book Citation Examples
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Refer to these Chicago book citation examples for how you should write your bibliography. Chicago 17 style uses two ways to create bibliographies. With the author-date style, you place the author in the first element and the date in the second element. Include your source entries in a reference list following your report. The notes-bibliography style, on the other hand, is a more complicated...

How to Do a Chicago Style Bibliography
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Chicago style guidelines require either a full bibliography of all the works consulted during your research or a reference list of sources cited specifically in your paper. Turabian is a student version of Chicago style. Two Citation Styles Chicago style comes in two citation styles: author-date and notes-bibliography With author-date, you list all cited sources. By comparison, with notes...

Chicago/Turabian Citation Styles Explained
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The Chicago style of formatting citations was developed by the University of Chicago Press. The rules are outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) 17th edition. There is also a shorter, easier version of Chicago style for students called Turabian. These rules are outlined in A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Chicago style citations consist of the author...

Simple Chicago/Turabian Style Guide
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Chicago 17 style is used in writing research papers. Most students learn about this editorial style in college or post-graduate work. The terms Chicago and Turabian are often used interchangeably by teachers, which may cause some confusion. Turabian is a student version of Chicago style format; they follow the same format. Although it’s unlikely middle or high school students will use...

Chicago/Turabian Citation Basics
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Students encounter several different citation styles for formatting essays and research papers. However, even though there are editorial citation styles for every research field, students will primarily use three styles: APA, MLA and Chicago/Turabian. Chicago/Turabian Format Published by the University of Chicago Press, Chicago 17 style is the most extensive of the three citation styles. The...

Chicago Block Quote Format With Examples
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You’re just typing along in your academic paper and boom! You need to figure how to format Chicago Manual of Style block quotes. Rather than panic, learn how to block quote Chicago and Turabian style with ease. Not only will this article break down when to use block quotes in Chicago and Turabian style, but you’ll also learn how to create them for prose, verse and dialogue. Are you wondering...

Citing PowerPoint in Chicago/Turabian Style  
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What to learn how to cite a PowerPoint in Chicago? It’s common for instructors to use slideshow presentations during class lectures. It’s acceptable to use lectures as a cited source. However, it’s best to use them sparingly. Instead, find peer-reviewed journal articles or books by authoritative sources to back up your research. One way to use PowerPoint slideshow presentations in your Chicago 17...

Using Footnotes and Endnotes in the Same Essay
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Sometimes you may notice a book or journal article with both footnotes and endnotes. Typically, a Chicago 17 school paper will not include both; however, if you are writing a research paper that has several notes that are dense (substantive notes), you may want these as footnotes, and then you can put your source citations in your bibliography. Difference Between Substantive and Citation Source...

Using Endnotes in a Research Paper
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The Chicago notes-biblio style uses research paper endnotes and footnotes. An endnote and a footnote serve the same purpose. The difference is placement: a footnote is at the bottom of the page, whereas an endnote belongs at the end of a paper, book or chapter. These notes are short additions, clarifications or copyright information. By placing them outside of the text, you can provide the reader...

Abstracts vs. Annotated Bibliographies With Examples
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Sometimes students are assigned to write annotated bibliographies as standalone assignments. This is a good exercise to learn how to research and evaluate sources. Some students may wonder if abstracts are the same as annotated bibliographies. Others may wonder if they need to include an abstract with the annotated bibliography. Although the two appear similar on the surface, each serves a...

Chicago Annotated Bibliography Format and Example
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Chicago/Turabian 17 style bibliographies can be stressful. But, sometimes you’re required to write a Chicago style annotated bibliography too. A Chicago annotated bibliography includes your citations plus an annotation summarizing or evaluating each resource used. That’s why it’s called an annotated bibliography.  To get a clear picture of how to create your annotations, explore the...

Using Ibid in a Chicago Style Bibliography
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As you collect your sources and create your preliminary bibliography, you may choose to use Chicago notes-biblio style to prepare your research paper. As you’re reading through journal articles, you may notice the term “ibid.” in the notes section. It’s important to know how and when to use ibid. correctly in your bibliography. What is Ibid? In past years, it was common to use...

How to Cite the Bible in a Chicago Style Bibliography
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Most citation styles do not require a bibliographic entry to cite the Bible and other scared works. This includes Chicago author-date or notes-biblio style. However, you do need to create an in-text or parenthetical citation in your paper when referencing the Bible. Creating Biblical Citations While creating biblical citations, include the abbreviated name of the book, the chapter number, and the...

Sample Bibliography for an Anthropology Essay
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If you are writing an anthropology essay on the Navajo people, you may choose to talk about housing structures. This 17th edition of the Chicago/Turabian author-date style sample bibliography provides five resources for you to start researching this subject. Bibliography Example Format As you review this bibliography example for an anthropology paper, you’ll notice that it references a...

Writing and Bibliography Tips for an Anthropology Paper
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Learning about different cultures helps students understand how social and family bonds are formed. For example, it helps students empathize with other cultures. Studying anthropology is a broad area, so there are many topics to choose from for your anthropology paper. Generally, this subject is an elective, but you will learn many interesting things if you choose this course. What Is...

Proper Chicago Outline Format for an Essay
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One of the first steps to writing a college or high school essay or research paper in Chicago 17 style is creating an outline. An essay outline not only helps you organize your thoughts and sources, but it actually helps with writing the paper itself. But first, you must familiarize yourself with how to format an outline properly. Chicago Style Outline Format An essay outline in Chicago style...

How to Write a History School Paper in Chicago Style
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You may feel overwhelmed looking at your history paper assignment, especially the requirement for Chicago 17 style citations. It’s easy to know where to start if you plan your school project first. Before you even begin writing, review the assignment carefully to ensure you understand it. Although your instructor should give you specific guidelines, you can adapt these steps to complete your...

When to Use the Chicago Notes-Bibliography Style
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You have your research topic ready to go and you have written your basic outline for your paper. Now what? You look at your assignment instructions and realize your instructor requires you to use Chicago 17 notes style. What does that even mean? Understanding the use of Chicago notes-biblio style is important as you begin your college writing journey. What Is Chicago Notes-Biblio? Notes style or...

Citing Visual and Performing Arts in Chicago Author-Date Style
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You may use MLA style to write about art in high school, but there is a good chance you’ll be using Chicago/Turabian 17 style in college. If you are writing exclusively about an artist or art history, you will probably be asked to use the Chicago notes-biblio style. The notes-biblio style is ideal for writing about music, history and art, because you add notes throughout the text. Chicago author...

Citing YouTube Videos, Movies, and Audio in Chicago Author-Date
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Using multimedia sources in your research paper, whether it’s on history, philosophy or any other subject, adds variety to print sources. They also provide readers with an interesting look at the past by hearing or seeing historical figures. For example, a recording of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s fireside chat is accessed through a YouTube hosted video. Citing videos like these in Chicago...

Journal Article Citations in the Chicago Author-Date Style
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Using scholarly journal articles in your Chicago 17 author-date research paper is a great way to build up your authoritative sources. Learn to how to create Chicago author-date journal article citations in your reference list. Why Use Journal Articles Scholarly journals are indexed in databases, such as EBSCO and OCLC. Although many of these academic databases are fee-based, your school, college...

Citing Reference Works in Chicago Author-Date Style
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You will see the term “reference work“ frequently while doing research for your school project. But, what exactly are reference works? We usually think of dictionaries and encyclopedias when we hear that term; however, other works such as indices, almanacs and catalogs fall under that category as well. Some reference works are even guides to other reference works. Basically, a reference work is a...

Chicago Author-Date Citations for Websites and Social Media
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Creating entries in Chicago 17 author-date style is easier than the notes-biblio style, including for websites and other online sources. The notes-biblio style works well for research papers where you need to give your reader a lot of background information. However, the author-date style works better for research papers when you simply want to direct the reader to the source by providing the...

Creating Notes-Biblio Entries for Magazines and Newspaper Articles
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Using magazine and news articles in your Chicago 17 style school research paper adds variety to your bibliography. You can easily find these types of articles online, making them great candidates for your notes-biblio style paper. Bringing a full-length book to print takes time. The peer review and publishing process can delay journal articles, too. By contrast, magazines are usually published at...

How to Cite Journal Articles in the Chicago Notes-Biblio Style
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After you finish your research for your Chicago 17 notes-biblio style school paper, you will notice you have several research journal articles as sources. Journal articles are great for finding current information. The best journal articles to use for your research are those published through a double-blind peer reviewed process. Open Access Journals Open Access journals provide free access to...

How to Use Chicago Notes-Biblio Style Citations for Books
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Citation styles, like Chicago 17 notes-biblio, allow for some variation in creating entries for books. You may have noticed that some authors create bibliographies differently for their research articles. Even so, it is still important that you follow the basic format, and you definitely need to be consistent in your entries.  The main purpose of creating bibliographic entries is to lead your...

Create a Bibliography in the Notes-Biblio Chicago Style
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Even though the notes (either footnotes or endnotes) section throughout your paper gives a lot of detail about your sources, you will still need to create a list of your bibliographical entries. There are some exceptions, though, usually depending on what the publisher or your instructor has in mind. The bibliography is the second major component of what makes up the Chicago 17 notes-biblio...

Citing Visual & Performing Arts in Notes-Biblio
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As you research a topic for your art or history class, you may land upon a topic referring to plays, musical scores and/or art exhibition catalogs. You may need to cite performing arts sources for your Chicago 17 notes-biblio style paper, as a result. For example, if your art history instructor asks you to choose a subject on the Italian Renaissance, you have a wide range of topics to pursue from...

How to Cite a Movie, Podcast, or Video in Notes-Biblio Style
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Writing your research paper starts with finding your sources. When you’re writing a paper on history or the arts, it is likely you’ll be using either MLA style or Chicago/Turabian 17 notes-bibliography style. Typically, articles on psychology or other social sciences will not have a lot of art sources and you will use author-date citation styles such as APA or Chicago/Turabian author-date style...

Citing Reference Works in Notes-Biblio Style
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As you gather your sources for your school research paper, you may consult reference works such as dictionaries, textbooks or encyclopedias. Reference works can be important to your Chicago 17 notes-biblio style paper; however, they are secondary rather than primary sources and supplement your primary research, not replace it. Depending on the subject of your paper, you may use more secondary...

Creating Notes-Biblio Entries for Online Sources
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As you develop your research paper in the Chicago 17 notes-biblio style, try to use print sources as well as online sources. You may find material originally created in the print form, particularly scholarly journal articles, published in databases such as ProQuest. Generally, online databases require a paid subscription, but your school, college or public library provides access to most sources...

Sectioning a Chicago Notes-Biblio Style Bibliography
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Creating a bibliography guides your readers to all the sources you have consulted or used in your research. As you prepare your research paper, you look for sources that will back up your thesis statement. You may realize as you work through this process, though, that you need to revise your thesis or the way you present your arguments. Developing a preliminary or working bibliography allows you...

Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Citation Elements
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As you’re researching your sources for your Chicago/Turabian 17 author-date paper, start to gather the citation elements you need to prepare for your reference list. It can be overwhelming when you’re faced with the daunting research needed for your paper. You can make your life easier by creating a preliminary or working bibliography of all your sources as you go along. Information to...

Entries to Include in Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style
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As you gather your sources for your school research paper, you must remember to include every piece of information. While preparing your Chicago 17 author-date style reference list, you want to make sure you give credit where credit is due. This is a cornerstone of research for several reasons. Not only do you have to give credit to the original creator, but you need to direct your reader to your...

Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style Citations for Books
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Depending on the type of Chicago 17 style you are using, you’ll either create a notes-biblio style bibliography or an author-date style reference list. The author-date style is used a lot in the natural and physical sciences plus social sciences. Citations for books in the author-date style emphasize the author’s name and the date of publication. That’s because they’re...

Chicago Notes-Biblio Style vs. Author-Date Style
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Even though the notes-biblio and author-date styles both come from the Chicago/Turabian 17 style guide, there are critical differences between the two formats. Once you’ve selected the style you want to use, follow the format carefully. Both the in-text citation and its corresponding bibliographic entry are formatted differently. Understanding Chicago Notes-Biblio Style Because the Chicago style...

Creating a Chicago/Turabian Style Reference Page
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If you used the author-date Chicago/Turabian style while creating your paper instead of the notes-biblio style, you will need to create a reference list rather than a bibliography. The reference list is basically the same as the bibliography; however, you title the page References and you do not need to include all the sources you consulted. You do need to include all the sources that you cited...

How to Make and Use 3-em Dash in Chicago Style
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While developing your Chicago/Turabian style bibliography or reference list, you may use the 3-em dash method for multiple works by the same author. In the author-date style, you will use the publication date to organize your entries by the same author (or editor or translator). If you are using the notes-biblio style, you will organize your entries by the title of the work. Creating a 3-em Dash...

Footnote Referencing Styles
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So, you’ve ventured into the wacky world of footnotes. Understanding which styles use them, when they use them and how to use them can have you scratching your head in confusion. Don’t fret! In this article, you’ll learn all the different footnote referencing styles, why you might use footnotes, and how to use them through examples. Using Footnotes Footnotes are one way to make in-text...