Although we see abbreviated Latin words in articles, it can still be confusing as sometimes the way people use them is incorrect. Many Latin abbreviations have fallen out of common use, but still used in scholarly writing – ibid., etc., and i.e. are frequently used in text and reference citations. Definition of et al. Et al. means “and others” in Latin. Actually, it’s an abbreviation for...
Creating a bibliography is all about citing the works that you used in your essay to back up your research. However, depending on the type of work that you created or what it’s for, your citations are going to be a bit different.
Citation Formats, Styles and Examples
Generally, most of your writing will fall into the big three writing styles: APA, MLA or CMOS. But, other styles, like the Turabian and Harvard, are also available.
American Psychological Association
One of the most common styles, APA is used for essays or research papers in education, psychology, social sciences, etc. Citing sources will look different depending on the source. A printed book would be sourced in APA like:
Author last name, First initial. (year of publication) Title of work. City, State Publisher: Publisher.
Modern Language Association
If your essay falls into the area of humanities or liberal arts, you might opt for the MLA format for citations. While there are several ways to cite a source, citing a printed book will look like:
Last name, First name, Middle initial. Title of book. Publication place: Publisher, Publication date: Print
Chicago Manual of Style/Turabian
Business and fine arts writers might use a different approach. The CMOS is a professional style that offers a variety of different ways to list your sources in a bibliography. The Turabian is a form of the Chicago style that is designed for essays that will not be published. A print book citation in CMOS will look like:
Last name, First name. Title of book. Publication place: Publisher, publication date.
Harvard Referencing System
The Harvard style is designed for informational texts and can be used for liberal arts or social sciences. Referencing a book looks like:
Last name, First initial. (Year Publication). Title of work. Edition. Place published: Publisher.