Learn and Master Bibliographies, Works Cited, and References

CategoryCitations

Creating a bibliography is all about citing the works that you used in your essay to back up your research. However, depending on the type of work that you created or what it’s for, your citations are going to be a bit different.

Citation Formats, Styles and Examples

Generally, most of your writing will fall into the big three writing styles: APA, MLA or CMOS. But, other styles, like the Turabian and Harvard, are also available.

American Psychological Association

One of the most common styles, APA is used for essays or research papers in education, psychology, social sciences, etc. Citing sources will look different depending on the source. A printed book would be sourced in APA like:

Author last name, First initial. (year of publication) Title of work. City, State Publisher: Publisher.

Modern Language Association

If your essay falls into the area of humanities or liberal arts, you might opt for the MLA format for citations. While there are several ways to cite a source, citing a printed book will look like:

Last name, First name, Middle initial. Title of book. Publication place: Publisher, Publication date: Print

Chicago Manual of Style/Turabian

Business and fine arts writers might use a different approach. The CMOS is a professional style that offers a variety of different ways to list your sources in a bibliography. The Turabian is a form of the Chicago style that is designed for essays that will not be published. A print book citation in CMOS will look like:

Last name, First name. Title of book. Publication place: Publisher, publication date.

Harvard Referencing System

The Harvard style is designed for informational texts and can be used for liberal arts or social sciences. Referencing a book looks like:

Last name, First initial. (Year Publication). Title of work. Edition. Place published: Publisher.

Et al. and Other Latin Abbreviations
E

Although we see abbreviated Latin words in articles, it can still be confusing as sometimes the way people use them is incorrect. Many Latin abbreviations have fallen out of common use, but still used in scholarly writing – ibid., etc., and i.e. are frequently used in text and reference citations. Definition of et al. Et al. means “and others” in Latin. Actually, it’s an abbreviation for...

Using Footnotes and Endnotes in the Same Essay
U

Sometimes you may notice a book or journal article that has both footnotes and endnotes. Typically, a school paper will not include both; however, if you are writing a research paper that has several notes that are dense (substantive notes), you may want these as footnotes and then put your source citations at the end of the paper. Difference between Substantive and Citation Source Notes...

Creating an Endnote in a Research Paper
C

Endnotes and footnotes are used in Chicago notes-biblio style. An endnote and a footnote are the same thing – notes placed either at the bottom of the page or at the end of the paper, book, or chapter. These notes are short additions, clarifications or copyright information. They are placed outside of the text to provide the reader with a better reading experience. Using Notes One way for...

Difference Between Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography
D

As students enter the research writing world, they have to learn a whole new language about theses, bibliographies, secondary sources, primary sources and other new terms. Some areas that students find confusing are the differences among abstracts, annotated bibliographic entries and literature reviews. *This article focuses on literature reviews and annotated bibliographies, for a discussion on...

How to Cite a Website with No Author in APA
H

When you come across a relevant article published on a website, you may want to include that as a source for your APA paper. Unfortunately, many times online articles may not have an author byline. In that case, you will need to use the title of the article in place of the author’s name. Creating Citations for Online Articles Even if you do not know the author’s name or even the date of an...

Arranging Your APA Reference List
A

Arranging your APA Reference list in the proper format is an important part of completing your research paper. As you prepare and write your paper, you should be compiling a preliminary reference list or bibliography that contains all the information you need for your citations. Make sure all your citations are accurate and lead your reader directly to the same source you used for your paper...

Abstracts and Annotated Bibliographies
A

Sometimes students are assigned to write an annotated bibliography as a standalone assignment. This is a good exercise to learn about researching and evaluating sources. Some students may wonder if an abstract is the same as an annotated bibliography entry. Others may wonder if they need to include an abstract with the annotated bibliography. Although on the surface, the two appear similar, each...

Chicago Annotated Bibliography Entries
C

Bibliographies are an important part of a Chicago style research paper. At the end of your paper, you are required to include a bibliography of the sources you consulted. Unlike a works cited or reference list, you include all the works you consulted for research, not just the ones you cited in your paper. What is an Annotated Bibliography An annotated bibliography is a list of relevant sources...

Understanding Primary and Secondary Sources
U

No matter what editorial style you use for your school essay, APA, Chicago, or MLA, you will need to understand the difference between primary and secondary sources. Most papers include a combination of primary and secondary sources. Examples of Primary Sources Primary research is studying a subject using firsthand investigations such as: Conducting your own survey Conducting your own interviews...

In-Text and Parenthetical Citations
I

As you start researching and writing your school paper, you’ll notice discussion about in-text and parenthetical citations. You may wonder if these are two different things and are confused about how to use these. You may hear these citations referred to ‘internal’ citations; however, the commonly used terms are ‘in-text’ or ‘parenthetical’. Difference Between...

Using Footnotes in APA
U

Generally using footnotes is associated with Chicago notes-biblio style but other styles do use them sometimes.  In APA style, use footnotes only when you absolutely must, and, ask your instructor, as well. The purpose of footnotes is to add to or clarify a point or simply to add copyright information. APA Footnotes There are two types of footnotes used in APA. 1. Content Footnotes Content...

Writing a Literature Review for a College Paper
W

When you write an APA research paper, you will follow the introduction with a brief recap of the previous literature on your topic. This literature review helps guide your reader through your research process and backs up your research strategy and thesis. Literature Review Section A Literature review can be a research paper on its own. The author will critically evaluate published material on a...

Copyright and Fair Use for Students
C

Copyright law allows for fair use for students of copyrighted permissions under certain conditions. It’s important to understand how copyright law affects you as it’s a serious business. Publishers and companies spend a lot of money and legal time to protect their copyrights, trademarks and patents. With so much information available online, it’s easy to think it’s all open for your use, but that...

Evaluating Sources for Your School Essay
E

One of the most important part of researching your school paper topic, is making sure you are using good sources for your research. There is so much information available online that it can be overwhelming at first. However, if you follow these tips, you will learn to recognize authoritative sources quickly. What is a Source? Let’s start at the beginning here. First of all, you’ll need to...

Citing Meeting and Symposia Proceedings in APA
C

Professional, government agencies, and corporations often host conferences in which researchers can present new material and ideas to their peers. Conferences tend to be large multi-day events while a symposium is a smaller gathering, usually conducted in one day. Using Proceedings in Research Important current research is often presented at meetings and symposia, which is then published in...

Citing Six Authors or More in APA
C

Many times, researchers in particular field will write papers together. At times, several authors, even eight or more, will collaborate on an extensive research paper. This can be confusing while creating your APA reference list. Creating Reference List Entries for Six Authors or More Format – Up to and including seven authors: Author, A.A., Author, B.B., Author, C.C. & Author, D.D. (2000)...

Citing Dissertations and Theses in APA
C

Using doctoral dissertations and master’s theses is a useful way to bolster your research for your school paper. As post graduate students are required to do original research for their theses, these sources cover current, timely topics. Doctoral Dissertations and Master’s Theses Teachers prefer you use as many primary sources as possible. It is good to incorporate secondary sources in your...

Reviews and Peer Commentary APA Citations
R

Although reviews of books, movies, video games and other published entertainment are not primary sources, they can still be helpful in your research. You can find reviews in many places, including: Magazines Newspapers Websites Blogs Even your local small-town newspaper probably publishes reviews. You may even find reviews of reviews! How to Format a Review in APA Reviewer, A.A. (2000). Title of...

Citing a Reference Book in APA
C

One frequently asked question by students is how to property cite a reference book such as a dictionary or encyclopedia in APA style. Reference books are useful to supplement your research but use them as a secondary source to help you find primary sources to back up your thesis. Creating an APA Citation Creating a reference book citation follows the APA book format. Typically, there are editors...

Citing the Bible in Chicago
C

Most citation styles do not require a bibliographic entry for citing sources such as the Bible and other scared works, including Chicago  author-date or notes-biblio style. However, you do need to create an in-text or parenthetical citation in your paper. Creating Biblical Citations While creating biblical citations, include the abbreviated name of the book, the chapter number, and the verse...

 MLA Works Cited Films, Movies and TV Shows
 

If you’re writing a school essay using MLA style and need to cite films, movies or television shows, you can do so easily. MLA 8 is designed to be flexible to accommodate different platforms and versions. Films or Movies Films and movies are synonymous so you can use the terms interchangeably. Typically, in the United States, the word movie is used rather than film. Sometimes, independent...

Creating Anthology MLA Works Cited Entries 
C

Anthologies are collections of writings published in a book or journal. The writings are centered around a similar theme, time or subject matter written by various authors. Collections of poems or short stories by the same author are also anthologies. Types of Anthologies Short stories are collected in an anthology such as this book centered around Chicano/Latino writings published in 2008. The...

How to Cite an Interview in MLA
H

As you research your MLA paper, you may find that using interviews of prominent researchers in your field is a good source. Or you may decide to interview someone yourself. Depending on the type and manner of publication, interviews may be considered primary sources. Primary Source Interviews As you know, a primary source is one that contains original material, not an evaluation of a source. In...

How to Cite Shakespeare in MLA Works Cited
H

Teachers assign essays on William Shakespeare in humanities classes frequently, using MLA citation style. Learning about Shakespeare’s works can be fun and there are quite a bit of resources available to help you research and write about them as well. Creating In-Text Citations for Works by Shakespeare While creating in-text or parenthetical citations, list: Act. Scene. Lines. Formatting:...

Citing Scholarly Journal Articles in MLA Works Cited
C

Using scholarly journal articles in your MLA essay is a good way to find authoritative sources to back up your thesis statement. Journal articles fall under both primary and secondary sources, depending on the content. When you are searching for relevant articles, read the abstract first. This helps determine whether it will be a useful article for your paper. Finding Journal Articles for Your...

MLA Works Cited Magazine and Newspaper Articles
M

In MLA’s latest update, MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition, a container system was developed to help students figure out how to cite sources, like articles, correctly. MLA style is used in the humanities, which includes bibliographic entries for art, music, film, movies and video. With the changing technology, it became difficult for MLA editors to keep up with the changes. Primary and Secondary...

Researching and Writing an APA Psychology Paper
R

Psychology is a popular elective course. Many students are curious about the way our minds work. We often try to ‘psychoanalyze’ each other by looking at our behavior and coming up with armchair diagnosis of our teachers and fellow students. However, psychology is a broad field with many sub-fields, including clinical, cognitive and developmental psychology. Selecting Your Topic Depending on your...

Sample Bibliography for an Anthropology Essay
S

If you are writing an anthropology essay on the Navajo people, you may choose to talk about housing structures. This  Chicago/Turabian author-date style Sample Bibliography provides five resources for you to start researching this subject. References Drover, Christopher E. 1985. “Navajo Settlement and Architecture in Southeastern California.” Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 7...

Finding Public Domain Sources for Your Class Essay
F

Are you looking for primary sources for your humanities or social studies school projects? Primary sources are original materials or research and secondary sources are those materials that talk about primary sources. For example, an autobiography is a primary source and a biography is a secondary source. One great place to find primary sources are websites that digitize materials placed in public...

Writing a Social Studies Essay
W

Social Studies classes are required classes in high school and college. You probably have taken several social studies classes throughout your school years. As you graduate into higher level social studies classes, you will be required to prepare research papers about various subjects. Most instructors require either MLA style or Chicago style for your social studies papers. What Does Social...

How to Write a History School Paper
H

You may feel overwhelmed looking at your history paper assignment. Wondering where to start? It’s easy if you plan your school project before you get started on it. First of all, review the assignment so you understand it before you start. Although your instructor will give you specific guidelines, you can adapt these steps to complete your assignment. Select Your Topic If your instructor gives...

Footnotes or Endnotes?
F

If you are writing your college paper using the notes-biblio style or if your teacher asks you to include notes in your paper, you need to know the difference between footnotes and endnotes. Typically, notes are included in Chicago notes-biblio style, but you may include them in an MLA or APA citation style school project if your instructor requires them. The difference is simple: Place footnotes...

Preparing to Write MLA College Papers
P

Learning to research and write MLA college papers is an essential skill as you leave the comfort of high school classes. One frequent complaint by college professors is that high school students come unprepared for college level writing. Gearing high school classes towards standardized tests encourages teachers to teach the five-paragraph essay rather than writing research papers. College Writing...

When to Use Chicago Notes
W

You have your research topic ready to go and you have written your basic outline for your paper. Now what? You look at your assignment instructions and realize your instructor requires using the notes style. What does that even mean? Understanding the use of notes style is important as you begin your college writing journey. What is Notes-Biblio? Notes style or notes-biblio style is part of the...

Using Note Cards for MLA Research Papers
U

In today’s digital age, it seems strange that organizing your research sources would be done on index cards. Instead of a mobile app or Google Doc, writing your sources on separate 3 X 5 index cards may still be a better way to help organize your citation sources. Although some teachers provide Word document templates that follow the same pattern, having the cards available makes it easier to...

Difference Between Five-Paragraph Essay and MLA Paper
D

In high school, you’ll learn how to write a five-paragraph essay. This skill comes in handy as you learn to develop a thesis statement and organize an essay. Writing a five-paragraph essay is a part of standardized testing, which means it is a useful skill to learn. Organizing a Five-Paragraph Essay When you write a five-paragraph essay, you follow these steps: Introductory paragraph including...

Understanding APA Literature Reviews
U

Teachers often assign research papers to students, especially literature reviews. Literature reviews may be part of a larger research paper or stand alone on their own. Since conducting original research and writing a paper about it takes considerable time, instructors often require students prepare papers such as compare and contrast, critical essays or literature reviews instead. What is a...

Creating a School Project in APA Style
C

In high school, your instructor typically asks you to write a critical essay or a short research paper on a current event or interesting person. Writing in MLA style and creating a Works Cited page for your references, works well for these papers.  However, if you take psychology or sociology classes in high school or college, you may be asked to write a paper using APA style. Understanding APA...

Developing an APA Annotated Bibliography
D

APA Style uses an author-date reference list rather than a bibliography format to cite research sources. A reference list, unlike a bibliography, includes only those sources you cited within your school research paper. Each in-text citation matches a reference list entry. Starting the APA Annotated Bibliography However, your instructor may ask you to develop an annotated bibliography in APA style...

Writing APA Abstracts for a Literature Review
W

While developing your APA style school research paper, follow the specific formatting guidelines to finalize your paper. This citation example focuses on writing abstracts for an APA style paper. Learning to write abstracts is a good skill as it helps you develop the ability to summarize the important points in your paper. A busy student can read abstracts to determine if it’s worth the time to...

Citing Audio and Video in Chicago Author Date Style
C

While you are researching for your history paper, you will come across many multimedia sources. As primary sources such as photographs and recordings become fragile with age, libraries and other institutions are archiving these precious materials online. Many of these sources are available free through government repositories such as the Library of Congress. Universities, academic and public...

Creating Notes-Biblio Entries for Magazines and Newspaper Articles
C

Using magazine and news articles in your school research paper shows variety in your bibliography. Articles are shorter in length and found online easily, although you may wish to visit your library in person. Bringing a full-length book to print takes time and by the time a book is published, there may be updates to the research. Journal articles are published faster; however, it does take time...

Using Notes-Biblio Style for Books
U

Citation styles, like Chicago, allow for some variations in creating entries. If you have looked at a bibliography at the end of a research article, you will see that bibliographies are created differently. It is still important that you follow the basic format and, you definitely need to use consistency in your entries.  The main purpose of creating bibliographic entries is to lead your reader...

Creating a Bibliography in the Notes-Biblio Chicago Style
C

Even though the notes (either footnotes or endnotes) section throughout your paper gives a lot of detail about your sources, you will still need to create a list of your bibliographical entries. There are some exceptions, usually depending on what the publisher or your instructor has in mind. Creating a Citation When you use the notes-biblio style, it’s important that you have a corresponding...

Creating Notes-Biblio Entries for Multi-Media
C

Writing your research paper starts with finding your sources. When you’re writing a paper on history or the arts, it is likely you’ll be using either MLA style or Chicago/Turabian Notes-Biblio Style. Typically, articles on psychology or other social sciences will not have a lot of art sources and you will use author-date citation styles such as APA or Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style. MLA and...

Citing Reference Works in Notes-Biblio Style
C

As you gather your sources for your school research paper, you may consult reference works such as dictionaries, textbooks or encyclopedias. Reference works can be important to your paper; however, they are secondary rather than primary sources and supplement your primary research, not replace it.  Depending on the subject of your paper, you may use more secondary sources than usual and will want...

Creating Notes Biblio Entries for Online Sources
C

As you develop your research paper in the Chicago Notes-Biblio style, try to use print sources as well as online sources. You may find material originally created in the print form, particularly scholarly journal articles, published in databases such as ProQuest. Generally, online databases require a paid subscription, but your school, college or public library provides access to most sources...

Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Citation Elements
C

As you’re researching your sources for your Chicago/Turabian author-date styled research paper, prepare for your reference list by thinking ahead. It’s overwhelming when faced with the daunting research needed for your paper. You can make your life easier by creating a preliminary or working bibliography of all your sources. Information to Include in Citations As you gather bibliographic sources...

Entries to Include in Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style
E

As you gather your sources for your school research paper, you remember to include every piece of information. While preparing your Chicago Author-Date reference list, you want to make sure to give credit where credit is due. This is a cornerstone of research for several reasons. Not only do you have to give credit to the original creator, but you need to direct your reader to your sources for...

Creating MLA 8 In-Text Citations
C

Students often use terms such as reference, citation and bibliography interchangeably, but there are differences in these terms. A bibliography (or reference list) is the list of all the sources you used to create your paper. The citation is actually the combination of your in-text source, which then refers the reader to the full entry listed at the end of your paper. This list, titled a...