Learn and Master Bibliographies, Works Cited, and References


Creating a bibliography is all about citing the works that you used in your essay to back up your research. However, depending on the type of work that you created or what it’s for, your citations are going to be a bit different.

Citation Formats, Styles and Examples

Generally, most of your writing will fall into the big three writing styles: APA, MLA or CMOS. But, other styles, like the Turabian and Harvard, are also available.

American Psychological Association

One of the most common styles, APA is used for essays or research papers in education, psychology, social sciences, etc. Citing sources will look different depending on the source. A printed book would be sourced in APA like:

Author last name, First initial. (year of publication) Title of work. City, State Publisher: Publisher.

Modern Language Association

If your essay falls into the area of humanities or liberal arts, you might opt for the MLA format for citations. While there are several ways to cite a source, citing a printed book will look like:

Last name, First name, Middle initial. Title of book. Publication place: Publisher, Publication date: Print

Chicago Manual of Style/Turabian

Business and fine arts writers might use a different approach. The CMOS is a professional style that offers a variety of different ways to list your sources in a bibliography. The Turabian is a form of the Chicago style that is designed for essays that will not be published. A print book citation in CMOS will look like:

Last name, First name. Title of book. Publication place: Publisher, publication date.

Harvard Referencing System

The Harvard style is designed for informational texts and can be used for liberal arts or social sciences. Referencing a book looks like:

Last name, First initial. (Year Publication). Title of work. Edition. Place published: Publisher.

Creating Anthology MLA Works Cited Entries 

Anthologies are collections of writings published in a book or journal. The writings are centered around a similar theme, time or subject matter written by various authors. Collections of poems or short stories by the same author are also anthologies. Types of Anthologies Short stories are collected in an anthology such as this book centered around Chicano/Latino writings published in 2008. The...

How to Cite an Interview in MLA

As you research your MLA paper, you may find that using interviews of prominent researchers in your field is a good source. Or you may decide to interview someone yourself. Depending on the type and manner of publication, interviews may be considered primary sources. Primary Source Interviews As you know, a primary source is one that contains original material, not an evaluation of a source. In...

How to Cite Shakespeare in MLA Works Cited

Teachers assign essays on William Shakespeare in humanities classes frequently, using MLA citation style. Learning about Shakespeare’s works can be fun and there are quite a bit of resources available to help you research and write about them as well. Creating In-Text Citations for Works by Shakespeare While creating in-text or parenthetical citations, list: Act. Scene. Lines. Formatting:...

Citing Scholarly Journal Articles in MLA Works Cited

Using scholarly journal articles in your MLA essay is a good way to find authoritative sources to back up your thesis statement. Journal articles fall under both primary and secondary sources, depending on the content. When you are searching for relevant articles, read the abstract first. This helps determine whether it will be a useful article for your paper. Finding Journal Articles for Your...

MLA Works Cited Magazine and Newspaper Articles

In MLA’s latest update, MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition, a container system was developed to help students figure out how to cite sources, like articles, correctly. MLA style is used in the humanities, which includes bibliographic entries for art, music, film, movies and video. With the changing technology, it became difficult for MLA editors to keep up with the changes. Primary and Secondary...

Researching and Writing an APA Psychology Paper

Psychology is a popular elective course. Many students are curious about the way our minds work. We often try to ‘psychoanalyze’ each other by looking at our behavior and coming up with armchair diagnosis of our teachers and fellow students. However, psychology is a broad field with many sub-fields, including clinical, cognitive and developmental psychology. Selecting Your Topic Depending on your...

Sample Bibliography for an Anthropology Essay

If you are writing an anthropology essay on the Navajo people, you may choose to talk about housing structures. This  Chicago/Turabian author-date style Sample Bibliography provides five resources for you to start researching this subject. References Drover, Christopher E. 1985. “Navajo Settlement and Architecture in Southeastern California.” Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 7...

Finding Public Domain Sources for Your Class Essay

Are you looking for primary sources for your humanities or social studies school projects? Primary sources are original materials or research and secondary sources are those materials that talk about primary sources. For example, an autobiography is a primary source and a biography is a secondary source. One great place to find primary sources are websites that digitize materials placed in public...

Writing a Social Studies Essay

Social Studies classes are required classes in high school and college. You probably have taken several social studies classes throughout your school years. As you graduate into higher level social studies classes, you will be required to prepare research papers about various subjects. Most instructors require either MLA style or Chicago style for your social studies papers. What Does Social...

How to Write a History School Paper

You may feel overwhelmed looking at your history paper assignment. Wondering where to start? It’s easy if you plan your school project before you get started on it. First of all, review the assignment so you understand it before you start. Although your instructor will give you specific guidelines, you can adapt these steps to complete your assignment. Select Your Topic If your instructor gives...

Footnotes or Endnotes?

If you are writing your college paper using the notes-biblio style or if your teacher asks you to include notes in your paper, you need to know the difference between footnotes and endnotes. Typically, notes are included in Chicago notes-biblio style, but you may include them in an MLA or APA citation style school project if your instructor requires them. The difference is simple: Place footnotes...

Preparing to Write MLA College Papers

Learning to research and write MLA college papers is an essential skill as you leave the comfort of high school classes. One frequent complaint by college professors is that high school students come unprepared for college level writing. Gearing high school classes towards standardized tests encourages teachers to teach the five-paragraph essay rather than writing research papers. College Writing...

When to Use Chicago Notes

You have your research topic ready to go and you have written your basic outline for your paper. Now what? You look at your assignment instructions and realize your instructor requires using the notes style. What does that even mean? Understanding the use of notes style is important as you begin your college writing journey. What is Notes-Biblio? Notes style or notes-biblio style is part of the...

Using Note Cards for MLA Research Papers

In today’s digital age, it seems strange that organizing your research sources would be done on index cards. Instead of a mobile app or Google Doc, writing your sources on separate 3 X 5 index cards may still be a better way to help organize your citation sources. Although some teachers provide Word document templates that follow the same pattern, having the cards available makes it easier to...

Difference Between Five-Paragraph Essay and MLA Paper

In high school, you’ll learn how to write a five-paragraph essay. This skill comes in handy as you learn to develop a thesis statement and organize an essay. Writing a five-paragraph essay is a part of standardized testing, which means it is a useful skill to learn. Organizing a Five-Paragraph Essay When you write a five-paragraph essay, you follow these steps: Introductory paragraph including...

Understanding APA Literature Reviews

Teachers often assign research papers to students, especially literature reviews. Literature reviews may be part of a larger research paper or stand alone on their own. Since conducting original research and writing a paper about it takes considerable time, instructors often require students prepare papers such as compare and contrast, critical essays or literature reviews instead. What is a...

Creating a School Project in APA Style

In high school, your instructor typically asks you to write a critical essay or a short research paper on a current event or interesting person. Writing in MLA style and creating a Works Cited page for your references, works well for these papers.  However, if you take psychology or sociology classes in high school or college, you may be asked to write a paper using APA style. Understanding APA...

Developing an APA Annotated Bibliography

APA Style uses an author-date reference list rather than a bibliography format to cite research sources. A reference list, unlike a bibliography, includes only those sources you cited within your school research paper. Each in-text citation matches a reference list entry. Starting the APA Annotated Bibliography However, your instructor may ask you to develop an annotated bibliography in APA style...

Writing APA Abstracts for a Literature Review

While developing your APA style school research paper, follow the specific formatting guidelines to finalize your paper. This citation example focuses on writing abstracts for an APA style paper. Learning to write abstracts is a good skill as it helps you develop the ability to summarize the important points in your paper. A busy student can read abstracts to determine if it’s worth the time to...

Citing Audio and Video in Chicago Author Date Style

While you are researching for your history paper, you will come across many multimedia sources. As primary sources such as photographs and recordings become fragile with age, libraries and other institutions are archiving these precious materials online. Many of these sources are available free through government repositories such as the Library of Congress. Universities, academic and public...

Creating Notes-Biblio Entries for Magazines and Newspaper Articles

Using magazine and news articles in your school research paper shows variety in your bibliography. Articles are shorter in length and found online easily, although you may wish to visit your library in person. Bringing a full-length book to print takes time and by the time a book is published, there may be updates to the research. Journal articles are published faster; however, it does take time...

Using Notes-Biblio Style for Books

Citation styles, like Chicago, allow for some variations in creating entries. If you have looked at a bibliography at the end of a research article, you will see that bibliographies are created differently. It is still important that you follow the basic format and, you definitely need to use consistency in your entries.  The main purpose of creating bibliographic entries is to lead your reader...

Creating a Bibliography in the Notes-Biblio Chicago Style

Even though the notes (either footnotes or endnotes) section throughout your paper gives a lot of detail about your sources, you will still need to create a list of your bibliographical entries. There are some exceptions, usually depending on what the publisher or your instructor has in mind. Creating a Citation When you use the notes-biblio style, it’s important that you have a corresponding...

Creating Notes-Biblio Entries for Multi-Media

Writing your research paper starts with finding your sources. When you’re writing a paper on history or the arts, it is likely you’ll be using either MLA style or Chicago/Turabian Notes-Biblio Style. Typically, articles on psychology or other social sciences will not have a lot of art sources and you will use author-date citation styles such as APA or Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style. MLA and...

Citing Reference Works in Notes-Biblio Style

As you gather your sources for your school research paper, you may consult reference works such as dictionaries, textbooks or encyclopedias. Reference works can be important to your paper; however, they are secondary rather than primary sources and supplement your primary research, not replace it.  Depending on the subject of your paper, you may use more secondary sources than usual and will want...

Creating Notes Biblio Entries for Online Sources

As you develop your research paper in the Chicago Notes-Biblio style, try to use print sources as well as online sources. You may find material originally created in the print form, particularly scholarly journal articles, published in databases such as ProQuest. Generally, online databases require a paid subscription, but your school, college or public library provides access to most sources...

Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Citation Elements

As you’re researching your sources for your Chicago/Turabian author-date styled research paper, prepare for your reference list by thinking ahead. It’s overwhelming when faced with the daunting research needed for your paper. You can make your life easier by creating a preliminary or working bibliography of all your sources. Information to Include in Citations As you gather bibliographic sources...

Entries to Include in Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style

As you gather your sources for your school research paper, you remember to include every piece of information. While preparing your Chicago Author-Date reference list, you want to make sure to give credit where credit is due. This is a cornerstone of research for several reasons. Not only do you have to give credit to the original creator, but you need to direct your reader to your sources for...

Creating MLA 8 In-Text Citations

Students often use terms such as reference, citation and bibliography interchangeably, but there are differences in these terms. A bibliography (or reference list) is the list of all the sources you used to create your paper. The citation is actually the combination of your in-text source, which then refers the reader to the full entry listed at the end of your paper. This list, titled a...

Using MLA Containers

As you learn about using MLA for citing your sources, you’ll notice a new term ‘container’. You may wonder what that means for you as you create your works cited page. There’s a simple reason why MLA developed the container style. While updating the “MLA Handbook”, the editors realized they needed to create an easier way to format entries. Since information is found in so many sources and methods...

MLA: Understanding the Core Elements of Works Cited

MLA Style is designed to be flexible since it’s used in the arts and humanities. The Eighth Edition of MLA Handbook provides an easy way to create entries for different sources, such as artworks, videos and printed materials. MLA Elements There are nine elements to each entry in an MLA Works Cited list. The Eighth Edition has revised these elements so if your instructor requires to you to use the...

Understanding Chicago Notes-Biblio Style vs. Author-Date Style

Even though the notes-biblio and author-date styles both come from the Chicago/Turabian style guide, there are critical differences between the two styles. Once you’ve selected the style you want to use, follow the format carefully. Both the in-text citation and its corresponding bibliographic entry are formatted differently. Understanding Notes-Biblio Style Because the notes- biblio style allows...

MLA 8th Edition Abbreviations and Acronyms

You may use abbreviations in your Works Cited list but when you are writing your paper, you should always spell out the words. Instead of using abbreviations such as etc., i.e. and e.g., write them out. For example, instead of using e.g., write out “for example”.  When you use acronyms in your paper, write them out first then put the acronym in parenthesis. You may then use the acronym throughout...

Creating a Chicago/Turabian Style Reference List

If you used the author-date Chicago/Turabian style while creating your paper instead of the notes-biblio style, you will need to create a reference list rather than a bibliography. The reference list is basically the same as the bibliography; however, you’ll title the page References and you do not need to include all the sources you consulted. You do need to include all the sources that you...

How to Cite Legal Sources in APA

If you’re using legal sources in your report and are trying to figure out how to fit them into your reference list, you’ll probably feel somewhat confused because, for the most part, APA follows The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation style. However, in some cases, you’ll still follow APA guidelines. Bluebook or APA APA recommends that references to legal materials, such as statutes, court...

APA Reference List: Periodical Examples

APA Reference List: Periodical Examples. 6th Edition Periodicals are materials that are published on a regular basis. For example, magazines, newsletters, journals may be published daily, weekly, monthly or other regularly scheduled dates. Periodicals follow a general reference form in APA with a few differences. Newspaper articles citations include the year of publication as well as the day;...

APA Book Reference Examples

APA Reference List Citation Examples Creating APA citations for print and ebooks is simple once you understand the format. APA uses the author-date system, which means the author’s last name, first initial and the date of publication are the most important elements of the citation. Citing Print Books in APA BOOK (PRINT) One author Author, A.A. (2001). Title of work. Location: Publisher...

APA Style Citation Format Examples

Writing your paper was easy-peasy. You had the perfect sources, and everything reads great. Now it’s time to format your reference page. You’re looking at the books, web pages, PDFs, journals and magazines that you used. Formatting each one is slightly different. Break down the format that you should use by looking at a few different examples. Citation Rules There are rules that the...

Works Cited Page Example

Your paper is perfect! All your in-text quotes have a citation, the formatting is top-notch and you’re now breathing a sigh of relief. Until you realize you don’t have a works cited. Don’t lose your cool. You have the research and the paper, the works cited is a piece of cake. How to Do a Works Cited Page A works cited page is the last page of your MLA style paper. It’ll include your references...

Easy APA Citation Page

Your professor requested APA format and your paper is done. Time to breathe easy right? What about your references page? You didn’t think to create that while you were writing your paper and now you are staring at it in horror. You have your references, but what should they look like? How should they be formatted? Check out a few examples to make sure you are doing it right. Bibliography vs...

Turabian Style Citations and Bibliography

Your professor has told you to write your paper in Turabian style, but you’re clueless. You keep seeing this style and Chicago combined. Now you are really confused. Find your answers to what Turabian is and how it’s created. What Is Turabian Style? Turabian is a style covered under the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS). The difference in these styles is who they are created for...

How to Make a Citation in MLA, APA, and Chicago/Turabian

In high school, college and even your career, knowing how to make a citation within your writing is important. The citation lets the reader know where you found the information and where they can find the information. It also makes it clear that these aren’t your thoughts. Citation is all about giving credit where credit is due. Citation is All About Style Whether it’s your clothes, your...

How to Cite the Bible in APA, MLA, Harvard, and Chicago

The bible is a formidable opponent when it comes to writing. How are you supposed to cite the different elements? How does it vary with each style? The list of questions goes on and on. However, don’t sweat it. Breaking down how to cite the Bible is as easy as A, B, C. First In-Text Citation or Parenthetical Reference There are different places that you might choose to cite the bible, and in-text...

How to Cite a PDF in MLA, APA and, Chicago

You’ve found the best source ever, but it is a PDF. Don’t overlook it just because you are unsure of how to cite it. Find out how to cite your PDF in your references, no matter which style you are using. Citing a One Author PDF Setting up the citation in your references for a PDF is similar to an e-Book or a digital document. However, depending on different variables, like number of authors, this...

How to Cite a Picture in MLA

Images add diversity and visual information that just sometimes isn’t possible with words. But how do you add it to your works cited? Learn the ins and outs of citing a picture in your work and a little about the legalities. Adding a Reproduced Image in Text Sometimes, it makes sense to visually reference images to prove a point. This is especially true if you are writing a paper about arts or...

How to Cite a Video Using MLA and APA

With the advent of YouTube, Vimeo and other great sites, you can find short videos and how-to-videos online from a wide range of experts. This means, you might find yourself using a video to create your essays. Make your video citations ‘fabulous’ by using a few simple tricks. Style Matters Of course style matters, this is professional writing after all. However, basically each style is looking...

Correct Blog Citations Using APA, MLA, Harvard, and Chicago

You thought that your citation game was strong. But you’ve hit a blog. Don’t stress. Blog style citations typically break down the who, when, what and where of the blog you used. Just so you are prepared for anything that comes your way, learn the formats for APA, MLA, Harvard and Chicago. How to Cite a Blog in APA Social science, education or psychology writers, listen up. This is for you. Blogs...

Citations for Quotes in APA Style

You think adding quote citations is going to be simple. But suddenly you have one book with multiple authors and another book with no date. You’re trying to add a citation for a website quote with no author or date. Plus, you have an interview. Simple citations have become a mess. Break down citations for books, websites and even interviews in even the most difficult of situations. Book...

Accurate APA Style Interview Citations

Interviews can add a personalized touch to your paper, since this information is not found anywhere else and comes from an expert. Since you’ve done all the hard work and conducted the interview, make sure you cite it accurately to give your paper a polished look. Adding an Interview in APA APA is a style set forth by the American Psychological Association. It ensures that all papers follow a...

Easy Ways to Cite Wikipedia

Wikipedia is a great starting point for research. Some will caution using it as a source because the content is user generated and plagiarism issues can come into play. But it’s usually backed up with additional sources that can improve your writing. If you’re adding it to your bibliography or works cited, there are a few easy ways to accomplish this no matter what format you are using...