Learn and Generate Bibliographies, Citations, and Works Cited


Creating a bibliography is all about citing the works that you used in your essay to back up your research. However, depending on the type of work that you created or what it’s for, your citations are going to be a bit different.

Citation Formats, Styles and Examples

Generally, most of your writing will fall into the big three writing styles: APA, MLA or CMOS. But, other styles, like the Turabian and Harvard, are also available.

American Psychological Association

One of the most common styles, APA is used for essays or research papers in education, psychology, social sciences, etc. Citing sources will look different depending on the source. A printed book would be sourced in APA like:

Author last name, First initial. (year of publication) Title of work. City, State Publisher: Publisher.

Modern Language Association

If your essay falls into the area of humanities or liberal arts, you might opt for the MLA format for citations. While there are several ways to cite a source, citing a printed book will look like:

Last name, First name, Middle initial. Title of book. Publication place: Publisher, Publication date: Print

Chicago Manual of Style/Turabian

Business and fine arts writers might use a different approach. The CMOS is a professional style that offers a variety of different ways to list your sources in a bibliography. The Turabian is a form of the Chicago style that is designed for essays that will not be published. A print book citation in CMOS will look like:

Last name, First name. Title of book. Publication place: Publisher, publication date.

Harvard Referencing System

The Harvard style is designed for informational texts and can be used for liberal arts or social sciences. Referencing a book looks like:

Last name, First initial. (Year Publication). Title of work. Edition. Place published: Publisher.

APA Citation

APA citation follows the author-date style of formatting in-text and reference list entries. In APA author-date style, the last name of the author and the first name initial is the first element. After that, the year of publication is added to the citation followed by the rest of the source data. A citation is the combination of the in-text citation and the full source citation in the reference...

APA Style Guide

Although APA style is used primarily in college and post-graduate studies, it is possible that your high school instructors will ask you to use this editorial style. APA follows the author-date citation format, which makes it easy to follow sources by looking for the author and the year of publication.  Overview of APA Style APA style was developed by the American Psychological Association to...

Chicago/Turabian Citation

The Chicago style of formatting citations was developed by the University of Chicago Press. The rules are outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS). There is a shorter, easier version of Chicago style called Turabian created for students. These rules are outlined in A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Chicago uses both the author-date citation and the notes...

MLA Style Guide

  As you enter middle and high school English classes, you will be asked to write papers in the MLA style. Using MLA may seem confusing at first; however, as you gain skills, you’ll realize that writing in this style actually helps you organize your paper, do research and avoid plagiarism. Understanding MLA style is the first step to a successful research writing experience. Overview...

Understanding the Basics of Chicago/Turabian Citations

Overview of Editorial Styles Students encounter several different citation styles for formatting essays and research papers. However, even though there are editorial citation styles for every research field, students will use three primary styles: APA, MLA and Chicago/Turabian. APA Format Citation Style APA style is developed by the American Psychological Association (APA) for research in...

Et al. and Other Latin Abbreviations

Although we see abbreviated Latin words in articles, it can still be confusing as sometimes the way people use them is incorrect. Many Latin abbreviations have fallen out of common use, but still used in scholarly writing – ibid., etc., and i.e. are frequently used in text and reference citations. Definition of et al. Et al. means “and others” in Latin. Actually, it’s an abbreviation for...

Creating an Endnote in a Research Paper

Endnotes and footnotes are used in Chicago notes-biblio style. An endnote and a footnote are the same thing – notes placed either at the bottom of the page or at the end of the paper, book, or chapter. These notes are short additions, clarifications or copyright information. They are placed outside of the text to provide the reader with a better reading experience. Using Notes One way for...

Difference Between a Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography

As students enter the research writing world, they have to learn a whole new language about theses, bibliographies, secondary sources, primary sources and other new terms. Some areas that students find confusing are the differences among abstracts, annotated bibliographic entries and literature reviews. The confusion is understandable as there are many similarities in these aspects of report...

Abstracts and Annotated Bibliographies

Sometimes students are assigned to write an annotated bibliography as a standalone assignment. This is a good exercise to learn about researching and evaluating sources. Some students may wonder if an abstract is the same as an annotated bibliography entry. Others may wonder if they need to include an abstract with the annotated bibliography. Although on the surface, the two appear similar, each...

Understanding Primary and Secondary Sources

No matter what editorial style you use for your school essay, APA, Chicago, or MLA, you will need to understand the difference between primary and secondary sources. Most papers include a combination of primary and secondary sources. It’s important to learn how to evaluate sources so that you are using material and data prepared by authoritative sources. Examples of Primary Sources Primary...

Writing a Literature Review for a College Paper

When you write an APA research paper, you will follow the introduction with a brief recap of the previous literature on your topic. This literature review helps guide your reader through your research process and backs up your research strategy and thesis. Literature Review Section A Literature review can be a research paper on its own. The author will critically evaluate published material on a...

Copyright and Fair Use for Students

Copyright law allows for fair use for students of copyrighted permissions under certain conditions. It’s important to understand how copyright law affects you as it’s a serious business. Publishers and companies spend a lot of money and legal time to protect their copyrights, trademarks and patents. With so much information available online, it’s easy to think it’s all open for your use, but that...

Evaluating Sources for Your School Essay

One of the most important part of researching your school paper topic, is making sure you are using good sources for your research. There is so much information available online that it can be overwhelming at first. However, if you follow these tips, you will learn to recognize authoritative sources quickly. What is a Source? Let’s start at the beginning here. First of all, you’ll need to...

Finding Public Domain Sources for Your Class Essay

Are you looking for primary sources for your humanities or social studies school projects? Primary sources are original materials or research and secondary sources are those materials that talk about primary sources. For example, an autobiography is a primary source and a biography is a secondary source. One great place to find primary sources are websites that digitize materials placed in public...

Writing a Social Studies Essay

Social Studies classes are required classes in high school and college. You probably have taken several social studies classes throughout your school years. As you graduate into higher level social studies classes, you will be required to prepare research papers about various subjects. Most instructors require either MLA style or Chicago style for your social studies papers. What Does Social...

APA References, Works Cited and Bibliography Differences

As we have learned in other articles on this site, there is a difference between the way references are cited. It all depends on what citation style your teacher asks you to use while you’re preparing your school project bibliography. Differences of Style Many people use the terms ‘works cited’, “reference list” and “bibliography” interchangeably, but there are differences. First of all, it...

Works Cited Page Example

Your paper is perfect! All your in-text quotes have a citation, the formatting is top-notch and you’re now breathing a sigh of relief. Until you realize you don’t have a works cited. Don’t lose your cool. You have the research and the paper; the works cited is a piece of cake. How to Do a Works Cited Page A works cited page is the last page of your MLA style paper. It’ll include the references...

Easy APA Citation Page

Your professor requested APA format and your paper is done. Time to breathe easy, right? What about your references page? You didn’t think to create that while you were writing your paper and now you are staring at it in horror. You have your references, but what should they look like? How should they be formatted? Check out a few examples to make sure you are doing it right. Bibliography vs...

Turabian Style Citations and Bibliography

Your professor has told you to write your paper in Turabian style, but you’re clueless. You keep seeing this style and Chicago combined. Now you are really confused. Find your answers to what Turabian is and how it’s created. What Is Turabian Style? Turabian is a style covered under the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS). The difference in these styles is who they are created for...

Differences Between Bibliography and Works Cited and References

Is your head spinning over the difference? Don’t let the terminology get to you. In its most basic form, a reference page, works cited and bibliography are all a page (or pages) at the end of your paper where you cite the sources that made your essay awesome. Learn when to use a reference, bibliography or works cited, along with how they’re different. Time for a Bibliography Knowing when to use a...

How to Make a Citation in MLA, APA, and Chicago/Turabian

In high school, college and even during your professional career, knowing how to make a citation within your writing is important. The citation lets the reader know where you found the information and where they can find the information. It also makes it clear that these aren’t your thoughts. Citation is all about giving credit where credit is due. Citation is All About Style Whether it’s...

Difference Between Citations and References

References and citations are the apples and oranges of the writing world. While it might seem like these two words are interchangeable. They are distinctly different within a scholarly writing piece. Learn what they are and how to use each one. Citations or References No matter what writing style that you use, you’ll come across the reference or citation dilemma, especially if you’re a...

How to Write Footnotes in MLA, APA, and Chicago

The time has come. You need to use footnotes in your paper. The sweat is beading. You’re starting to wonder if there is a way around it. Formatting footnotes isn’t the end of the world, if you know what you’re doing.  When to Use Footnotes in APA Before you dive head first into the world of footnotes, it is important to realize that APA format doesn’t generally recommend using footnotes...

How to Cite the Bible in APA, MLA, Harvard, and Chicago

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How to Cite a PDF in MLA, APA and, Chicago

You’ve found the best source ever, but it is a PDF. Don’t overlook it just because you are unsure of how to cite it. Find out how to cite your PDF in your references, no matter which style you are using. Citing a One Author PDF Setting up the citation in your references for a PDF is similar to an e-Book or a digital document. However, depending on different variables, like number of authors, this...

How to Cite a Picture in MLA

Images add diversity and visual information that sometimes just isn’t possible with words. But, how do you add it to your works cited? Learn the ins and outs of citing a picture in your work and a little about the legalities. Adding a Reproduced Image in Text Sometimes, it makes sense to reference images visually to prove a point. This is especially true if you are writing a paper about art or...

How to Cite a Video Using MLA and APA

With the advent of YouTube, Vimeo and other great sites, you can find short videos and how-to-videos online from a wide range of experts. This means, you might find yourself using a video to create your essays. Make your video citations “fabulous” by using a few simple tricks. Style Matters Of course, style matters. This is professional writing, after all. However, basically each...

Correct Blog Citations Using APA, MLA, Harvard, and Chicago

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Citations for Quotes in APA Style

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Accurate APA Style Interview Citations

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Easy Ways to Cite Wikipedia

Wikipedia is a great starting point for research. Some will caution using it as a source because the content is user generated and plagiarism issues can come into play. But, it’s usually backed up with additional sources that can improve your writing. If you’re adding it to your bibliography, reference list or works cited, there are a few easy ways to accomplish this no matter what format...

How to Use APA Citation With No Author

Writing can be a fun and exciting time. Don’t let your head get all jumbled over styles, especially if you come across a difficult source like a blog or article with no author. Instead of losing your cool, follow these simple steps to citing sources with no author in APA. No Author, No Problem Style guides let you wrap everything up in a nice neat package. They even cover those sticky situations...

Tips on Citing a Poem in MLA Style

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