Learn and Generate Bibliographies, Citations, and Works Cited

CategoryAPA Format

APA Style  is developed by the American Psychological Association (APA) for research in education, social and behavioral sciences. APA citation format rules are laid out in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association and are available online as well. Currently, the sixth edition is in place; however, APA is releasing the seventh edition soon. APA uses the author-date style with in-text citations and corresponding reference list entries.

Source:

VandenBos, G. R. (Ed). (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association

APA Format and Citations
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When it comes to writing styles, the format for APA citations can be a formidable foe. However, if you break down the APA format into the basics, it doesn’t really look so scary. Use this easy-to-follow APA format and citations guide to break down your research writing into easy steps. Table of Contents What Is APA Style? Choosing Your Thesis Finding Sources Creating an Outline Formatting an APA...

APA Image Citations for Photos and Digital Pictures
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Adding images, such as photos and digital pictures, to your sources helps your reader better visualize your research. Several sites provide access to historical photos, for example. A quick web search using the keyphrase “free historical images archive” can yield quite a few sites. Narrow your search to find a more specific image. Then, you’ll need to learn how to properly...

Why Are Proper Citations Important in Academic Writing?
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As students begin writing papers for English and history classes, they learn about citing sources. At first, writing proper citations in academic writing seems confusing and strange. You might even think it’s a waste of time! However, as you continue to write your papers, it becomes clear why you must include citations in your research papers and essays. Understanding Style Guides When your...

How to Do In-Text Citations in APA Format
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As you start writing your paper, you realize you need to include in-text citations in the proper APA format. In-text citations in APA 6 are sometimes called “parenthetical” citations because they are placed inside parentheses within a sentence. You may also place them within a sentence directly. Purpose of In-Text Citations Writing a research paper usually means you’re referencing...

APA Bible Citation Examples
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Need to refer to religious scripture in your school paper? Take a look at these APA Bible citation examples for how you should format your references. Although students use APA 6 style for writing papers in social science subjects like psychology, economics and sociology, these subjects may also include religious themes. As well, theology classes may require APA format for assignments. As always...

APA Anthology Citation Examples
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An anthology is a collection of works assembled into one format. For example, essays published by different authors centered around a theme are often published in a single book. Poetry is often published in an anthology. Although citing anthologies in APA 6 style may seem confusing at first, it’s actually very easy as you’ll follow the basic format of citing a chapter in an edited...

APA Citations for TV Shows Examples
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Follow these APA citations for TV shows examples when creating your works cited page. Writers for television shows often use the medium to explore social issues, such as racism, prison reform, gender identity and other social justice issues. Many programs produced in the 1970s brought such issues to the public’s attention. Television shows such as All in the Family, Maude, and The Jeffersons used...

APA PowerPoint Citation Examples
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Using lectures or notes created with presentation software, such as PowerPoint or Prezi, helps you in your research. Presenters sometimes share their findings at conferences or in lectures before publishing in journals or books. Find sources for your APA school paper from company training documents, lectures, and online training websites. While a PowerPoint presentation might be a formidable foe...

APA Video Citation Examples
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Do you want to add a personal touch to your research paper? Videos are a great way to do this but might be intimidating to cite. However, APA video citations aren’t as hard as you think. Get the ins and outs for making an APA video citation easily. APA Basic Format Adding video examples to your research paper helps you add visual elements for your readers. Films, movies, presentations and...

APA Citation Examples for Peer Reviewed Articles
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Using peer-reviewed journal articles in your research paper is a great way to add credibility. Citing them isn’t hard either. Learn how to cite a peer-reviewed article in APA using these easy to follow examples. Journal Article With One Author Use these APA citation examples for peer-reviewed journal articles to add authority to your APA 6 research paper.  Reviewing research by peers in the...

APA Article Citation Examples
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Books can get old fast. Magazines and journals are great relevant resources to add to your APA references list. Learn how to cite an article APA using a clear explanation and several examples. Just remember, writing a reference source citation for articles in APA 6 style follows the periodical format. APA Article – Print Format Using articles published in newspapers, magazines and journals...

APA Website Citation Examples
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Using the web to find information for your APA format school paper is the easiest way for students. Since it’s easy to upload content daily or even hourly, the information is current.  Follow the APA 6 citation format for the source and add the website address at the end. Use “Retrieved from” to guide the reader to the source. Basic APA Citation Format Websites can offer a...

APA Citation YouTube Video Examples
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Using YouTube videos for your APA format research paper is a good way to add interesting visual content to your research. Although YouTube is the most popular video hosting service, there are others available. To format your APA 6 citations for other video hosting sites, such as Vimeo, include the site where you found your video source. APA Video Citation Format For APA format, follow the basic...

APA Movie Citation Examples
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Although it isn’t common to cite movies in an APA style research paper, there are times when you may need to do so. For example, movies about people who suffer from depression or anxiety may help your psychology school research paper. Another common theme is overcoming difficulties within the education system for people with disabilities. Using these types of resources adds a personal touch...

APA Magazine Article Citation Examples
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Magazine articles can be a source of accurate information for your APA format research paper. Published monthly or weekly, magazines offer a current viewpoint of newly discovered research results.  Citing magazines in APA 6 style follows the periodical basic format. Print Magazine Citation Format When it comes to magazine sources, it is important to look only for reliable authoritative sources...

How to Write an APA Bibliography
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APA 6 style guidelines require a reference list of all the sources you included in your research paper. APA references follow the author-date style of citation. You may be asked to create an annotated APA bibliography, however. This could be a separate assignment or part of the larger research project. This goes above and beyond the basic reference list with a brief discussion of each entry...

APA Citation Newspaper Article Examples
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While researching and writing your APA 6 style school paper, you may come across relevant articles published in newspapers. Using newspaper articles helps support your research article by providing authoritative and current news. Follow the APA citation format for periodicals when creating a reference list entry for a newspaper article. One Author Citation Format Follow this format when citing a...

APA Journal Citation Examples
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Using journal articles in your APA 6 research paper strengthens your research. There are many ways to find journal articles, including databases and web searches. An APA journal citation follows the basic periodical format. Remember to include the URL or DOI if you use electronic sources. Journal Articles Print Citation Format The APA format for citing a journal article follows a basic author...

APA Book Citation Examples
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Writing citations for your APA 6 reference list is easy if you follow the basic format. Remember to use the author’s last name and then only the initials for the first and middle names. Also, include all the necessary elements so that your reader can find the exact source you used. The APA citation format for a book follows the author-date style, which means the year of publication will...

APA Citation Guidelines
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APA 6 citation follows the author-date style of formatting in-text and reference list entries. In APA author-date style, the last name of the author and the first name initial is the first element. After that, the year of publication is added to the citation, followed by the rest of the source data. A citation is the combination of the in-text citation and the full source citation in the...

APA Style Guide With Referencing and Formatting Tips
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Although APA 6 style is used primarily in college and post-graduate studies, it is possible that your high school instructors will ask you to use this editorial style. APA citation follows the author-date format, which makes it easy to follow sources by looking for the author and the year of publication.  Overview of APA Style APA style was developed by the American Psychological Association to...

APA Citation Format Guidelines and Examples
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As students enter middle school, they start learning how to research and format essays. As they progress through high school, this writing and research process becomes more complicated. This may include learning the basic format for an APA citation. Before this, though, students must learn about the need to correctly cite the sources they use in their writing. Understanding the reasons behind...

APA Block Quote Format
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APA format papers are written for social science fields such as psychology. As such, the material tends to be complex using high language. When you’re preparing your APA 6 paper, you may find yourself using longer quotations from other researchers to strengthen your argument. Using long quotations is acceptable in APA 6 style. These style rules require that any direct quotations that are 40 words...

Format an APA PowerPoint Reference Slide
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In addition to an APA 6 research paper, your teacher may also ask you to prepare a PowerPoint slideshow presentation. Just like any other research presentation, you must include proper citations of your sources for your slideshow presentation. APA In-Text Citations for PowerPoint As you prepare your PowerPoint or Prezi slideshow presentations in APA 6, you’ll need to distill your research...

How to Cite a Powerpoint in APA Format
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Students may find useful sources prepared in slideshow format, like in PowerPoint or Prezi. Lectures, meeting notes and other primary sources can be found in these presentations. Just like with any other source, you must cite PowerPoint presentations correctly in your APA 6 reference list. PowerPoint Slideshow APA Citation While citing lectures, meeting notes or other slideshow presentations...

Citing Multiple Sources in APA With the Same Author
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As you conduct research on a particular topic, you will come across the same authors who publish frequently. Researchers tend to focus on a particular area and continue to publish within it. When you have multiple sources by the same author, you’ll need to distinguish between them in your APA citations. Also, it’s important you check publication dates to make sure you are following the most...

Creating APA Citations for Websites With No Author
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When you come across a relevant article published on a website, you may want to include it as a source for your APA 6 style paper. Unfortunately, many times online articles may not have an author byline. The way to format APA citations with no author is to use the article’s title instead. Although it is acceptable to include information from sources with no author listed, make sure it at...

How Is the Reference List Arranged in APA?
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Arranging your APA 6 reference list in the proper format is an important part of completing your research paper. As you prepare and write your paper, you should compile a preliminary reference list or bibliography that contains all the information you need for your citations. Make sure all your citations are accurate and lead your reader directly to the same source you used for your paper. APA...

Abstracts vs. Annotated Bibliographies With Examples
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Sometimes students are assigned to write annotated bibliographies as standalone assignments. This is a good exercise to learn how to research and evaluate sources. Some students may wonder if abstracts are the same as annotated bibliographies. Others may wonder if they need to include an abstract with the annotated bibliography. Although the two appear similar on the surface, each serves a...

Footnotes in APA With Format Tips and Examples
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Generally, using footnotes is associated with Chicago notes-biblio style. Even so, other styles do use them sometimes. With APA 6 style, you should use footnotes only when you absolutely must. Ask your instructor for clarification. The purpose of footnotes is to add to or clarify a point. Footnotes are also used to add copyright information. Types of APA Footnotes There are two types of footnotes...

Writing a Literature Review for a College Research Paper
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When you write an APA 6 research paper, you will follow the introduction with a brief recap of the previous literature on your topic. This literature review helps guide your reader through your research process and backs up your research strategy and thesis. Literature Review Section A literature review can be a research paper on its own. The author will critically evaluate published material on...

Citing Technical and Research Reports in APA
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As you research for your APA 6 style school paper, you’ll likely come across sources in the form of technical and research reports. These types of reports are useful as secondary sources. They can help you find primary sources, but you shouldn’t rely on them as the basis of your thesis. However, original qualitative and quantitative research papers are considered primary sources. Basic APA...

APA Poster Presentation, Meeting, and Symposia Citations
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Professional organizations, government agencies, and corporations often host conferences in which researchers can present new material and ideas to their peers. Conferences tend to be large multi-day events while a symposium is a smaller gathering, usually conducted in one day. Learn how to format symposia citations in APA 6 correctly to add this material to your APA citation research paper...

Citing of Six or More Multiple Authors in APA
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Many times, researchers in a particular field will write papers together. At times, multiple authors, even eight or more, will collaborate on an extensive research paper. This can be confusing while creating your APA 6 reference list, but it doesn’t need to be. Creating Reference List Entries for Multiple Authors When a source has multiple authors, follow this format for your APA citation...

APA Citations for a Thesis or Dissertation
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Using doctoral dissertations and master’s theses is a useful way to bolster your research for your APA format school paper. As post graduate students are required to do original research for their theses, these sources cover current, timely topics. Follow the examples below for how to format thesis citations for your APA 6 references list. Doctoral Dissertation and Master’s Thesis Sources...

Reviews and Peer Commentary APA Citations
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Although reviews of books, movies, video games and other published entertainment are not primary sources, they can still be helpful in your research. As such, you’ll need to know how to cite reviews as part of writing your APA 6 format research paper. Where to Find Reviews You can find reviews in many places, including: Magazines Newspapers Websites Blogs Even your local small-town...

Citing a Reference Book in APA
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One frequently asked question by students is how to properly cite a reference book, such as a dictionary or encyclopedia, in APA format. Reference books are useful to supplement your research. However, you should use them primarily as a secondary sources to find more primary sources to back up your thesis. That will make for a stronger APA 6 style paper. Creating an APA Citation Creating a...

Researching and Writing an APA Psychology Paper
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Psychology is a popular elective course. Many students are curious about the way our minds work. We often try to “psychoanalyze” each other by looking at our behavior and coming up with armchair diagnoses of our teachers and fellow students. However, psychology is a broad field with many sub-fields, including clinical, cognitive and developmental psychology. Get top marks on your APA...

Understanding APA Literature Reviews
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Teachers often assign research papers to students, especially an APA literature review. Literature reviews may be part of a larger research paper or stand alone on their own. Since conducting original research and writing a paper about it takes considerable time, instructors often require students prepare papers such as compare and contrast, critical essays or literature reviews instead. What Is...

Writing an APA Style Paper for a School Project
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In high school, your teacher typically asks you to write a critical essay or a short research paper on a current event or interesting person. Writing in MLA style and creating a works cited page for your references works well for these papers. However, if you take psychology or sociology classes in high school or college, you may be asked to write a paper using APA 6 style. Understanding APA...

APA Annotated Bibliography Guide With Examples
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APA citation uses an author-date reference list rather than a bibliography format to cite research sources. A reference list, unlike a bibliography, includes only those sources you cited within your school research paper. Each in-text APA 6 citation matches a reference list entry. Starting the APA Annotated Bibliography Your instructor may ask you to develop an annotated bibliography in APA 6...

Writing Abstracts for a Literature Review in APA Format
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While developing your APA 6 style school research paper, follow the specific formatting guidelines to finalize your paper. This citation example focuses on writing abstracts for an APA format style paper. Learning how to write abstracts is a good skill to have, as it helps you develop the ability to summarize the important points in your paper. A busy student can read abstracts to determine if...

How to Cite a Legal Case, Document, or Source in APA
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If you’re using legal sources in your report, you’ll need to know how to fit them into your reference list. You may feel somewhat confused, though, because, for the most part, APA format follows The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation style for citing legal sources. However, in some cases, you’ll still follow standard APA 6 guidelines. Bluebook or APA The sixth edition of APA recommends...

APA Reference List Examples of Periodical Citations
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Periodicals are materials that are published on a regular basis. For example, magazines, newsletters, and journals may be published daily, weekly, monthly or on other regularly scheduled dates. Periodicals follow a general format in your APA 6 report with a few differences between them. Newspaper article citations include the year of publication as well as the day; however, journal articles use...

Putting APA References in Alphabetical Order
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You’ve finished your paper and organized your references. Now you’re ready to alphabetize the entries in your APA 6 format reference list. So, that’s as easy as ABC… or is it? Wait! Not so fast! You have three separate works written by the same author and two articles written by people with the same last name, but different first names. Maybe this isn’t as easy as it seems...

8 APA Book Reference Examples
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Creating APA citations for a print book or e-book in your reference list is simple once you understand the format. APA 6 uses the author-date system, which means the author’s last name, first initial and the date of publication are the most important elements of the citation. Citing Print Books in APA Style The specifics of how to cite a print book in APA 6 style is slightly different...

Difference Between MLA and APA Citation Pages
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You’ve been looking over the different writing styles and noticed that MLA and APA format are similar. Staring at the citation page, you really can’t see a difference between the two. While MLA 8 and APA 6 do have a lot of similarities in the citation pages, there are a few distinct differences that you’ll notice if you really look at them. MLA vs. APA If you are comparing MLA and APA citation...

APA Style Citation Format Examples
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Writing your APA 6 paper was easy-peasy. You had the perfect sources, and everything reads great. Now, it’s time to format your reference page. You’re looking at the books, web pages, PDFs, journals and magazines that you used. Formatting each one is slightly different. Break down the format that you should use by looking at a few different APA citation examples. Citation Rules There...

Easy APA Citation Guide to Generate Reference Pages
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Your professor requested APA format and your paper is done. Time to breathe easy, right? What about your references page? You didn’t think to create that while you were writing your paper and now you are staring at it in horror. You have your references, but what should they look like? How should they be formatted? Check out a few examples and you’ll find that formatting an APA 6 citation...

APA In-Text Citations and References for Multiple Authors
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Figuring out how to format your work with just one author was hard enough. Now, you have a book that has three different authors and one with eleven different authors. You know all those names are just going to clutter up your APA 6 essay. Learn the right way to source multiple authors using APA citations. Creating a Parenthetical Citation Whether you have a book or magazine with multiple...