Learn and Master Bibliographies, Works Cited, and References

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Citing Reference Works in Chicago Author-Date Style
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You will see the term “reference work “used frequently while doing your research for your school project. But what exactly are reference works? We usually think of dictionaries and encyclopedias when we hear that term; however, other works such as indices, almanacs and catalogs fall under that category. Some reference works are even guides to other reference works. Basically, a reference work is...

Creating Chicago Author-Date Entries For Online Sources
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Creating entries in Chicago/Turabian author-date style is easier than the notes-biblio style. The notes-biblio style works well for research papers where you need to give your reader a lot of background information. However, the author-date style works better for research papers when the primary method of directing your reader to your source is by providing the name of the creator of the work and...

Creating Notes-Biblio Entries for Magazines and Newspaper Articles
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Using magazine and news articles in your school research paper shows variety in your bibliography. Articles are shorter in length and found online easily, although you may wish to visit your library in person. Bringing a full-length book to print takes time and by the time a book is published, there may be updates to the research. Journal articles are published faster; however, it does take time...

Using Journal Articles in Notes-Biblio Style
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After you finish your research for your school paper, you will notice you have several sources obtained from research journal articles. Journal articles are great sources for finding current sources. Your college offers free access to several databases, such as ProQuest or JSTOR. If you don’t have access through your school, ask the reference librarian at your local library to help you. The best...

Using Notes-Biblio Style for Books
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Citation styles, like Chicago, allow for some variations in creating entries. If you have looked at a bibliography at the end of a research article, you will see that bibliographies are created differently. It is still important that you follow the basic format and, you definitely need to use consistency in your entries.  The main purpose of creating bibliographic entries is to lead your reader...

Creating a Bibliography in the Notes-Biblio Chicago Style
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Even though the notes (either footnotes or endnotes) section throughout your paper gives a lot of detail about your sources, you will still need to create a list of your bibliographical entries. There are some exceptions, usually depending on what the publisher or your instructor has in mind. Creating a Citation When you use the notes-biblio style, it’s important that you have a corresponding...

Citing Visual & Performing Arts in Notes-Biblio
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As you research a topic for your art or history class, you may land upon a topic referring to plays, musical scores and/or art exhibition catalogs. For example, if your art history instructor asks you to choose a subject on the Italian Renaissance, you have a wide range of topics to pursue from exploring the highlights of the period to Leonardo da Vinci’s life. It is best if you pick a few ideas...

Creating Notes-Biblio Entries for Multi-Media
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Writing your research paper starts with finding your sources. When you’re writing a paper on history or the arts, it is likely you’ll be using either MLA style or Chicago/Turabian Notes-Biblio Style. Typically, articles on psychology or other social sciences will not have a lot of art sources and you will use author-date citation styles such as APA or Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style. MLA and...

Citing Reference Works in Notes-Biblio Style
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As you gather your sources for your school research paper, you may consult reference works such as dictionaries, textbooks or encyclopedias. Reference works can be important to your paper; however, they are secondary rather than primary sources and supplement your primary research, not replace it.  Depending on the subject of your paper, you may use more secondary sources than usual and will want...

Creating Notes Biblio Entries for Online Sources
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As you develop your research paper in the Chicago Notes-Biblio style, try to use print sources as well as online sources. You may find material originally created in the print form, particularly scholarly journal articles, published in databases such as ProQuest. Generally, online databases require a paid subscription, but your school, college or public library provides access to most sources...

Sectioning Your Bibliography in Notes-Biblio Style
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Creating a bibliography guides your readers to all the sources you have consulted or used in research. As you prepare your research paper, you look for sources that will back up your thesis statement. You may realize as you work through this process, that you need to revise your thesis or the way you present your arguments. Developing a preliminary or working bibliography allows you to gather...

Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Citation Elements
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As you’re researching your sources for your Chicago/Turabian author-date styled research paper, prepare for your reference list by thinking ahead. It’s overwhelming when faced with the daunting research needed for your paper. You can make your life easier by creating a preliminary or working bibliography of all your sources. Information to Include in Citations As you gather bibliographic sources...

Entries to Include in Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style
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As you gather your sources for your school research paper, you remember to include every piece of information. While preparing your Chicago Author-Date reference list, you want to make sure to give credit where credit is due. This is a cornerstone of research for several reasons. Not only do you have to give credit to the original creator, but you need to direct your reader to your sources for...

Creating MLA 8 In-Text Citations
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Students often use terms such as reference, citation and bibliography interchangeably, but there are differences in these terms. A bibliography (or reference list) is the list of all the sources you used to create your paper. The citation is actually the combination of your in-text source, which then refers the reader to the full entry listed at the end of your paper. This list, titled a...

Using MLA Containers
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As you learn about using MLA for citing your sources, you’ll notice a new term ‘container’. You may wonder what that means for you as you create your works cited page. There’s a simple reason why MLA developed the container style. While updating the “MLA Handbook”, the editors realized they needed to create an easier way to format entries. Since information is found in so many sources and methods...

MLA: Understanding the Core Elements of Works Cited
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MLA Style is designed to be flexible since it’s used in the arts and humanities. The Eighth Edition of MLA Handbook provides an easy way to create entries for different sources, such as artworks, videos and printed materials. MLA Elements There are nine elements to each entry in an MLA Works Cited list. The Eighth Edition has revised these elements so if your instructor requires to you to use the...

Using the Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style for Books
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Depending on the type of Chicago style you are using, you’ll either create a notes-biblio style bibliography or an author-date style reference list. The author-date style is used a lot in the natural and physical sciences plus social sciences. In this style, the author’s name and the date of publication are considered the best way to identify the sources you’ve used to create your paper. Using...

Understanding Chicago Notes-Biblio Style vs. Author-Date Style
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Even though the notes-biblio and author-date styles both come from the Chicago/Turabian style guide, there are critical differences between the two styles. Once you’ve selected the style you want to use, follow the format carefully. Both the in-text citation and its corresponding bibliographic entry are formatted differently. Understanding Notes-Biblio Style Because the notes- biblio style allows...

MLA 8th Edition Abbreviations and Acronyms
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You may use abbreviations in your Works Cited list but when you are writing your paper, you should always spell out the words. Instead of using abbreviations such as etc., i.e. and e.g., write them out. For example, instead of using e.g., write out “for example”.  When you use acronyms in your paper, write them out first then put the acronym in parenthesis. You may then use the acronym throughout...

Creating a Chicago/Turabian Style Reference List
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If you used the author-date Chicago/Turabian style while creating your paper instead of the notes-biblio style, you will need to create a reference list rather than a bibliography. The reference list is basically the same as the bibliography; however, you’ll title the page References and you do not need to include all the sources you consulted. You do need to include all the sources that you...

MLA 7th Edition vs MLA 8th Edition
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As you start to prepare your paper in MLA Style, you realize you don’t know if you should use the seventh edition or the eighth edition of the” MLA Handbook”. You may think there’s not much difference but, in this case, a shift in creating entries for your Works Cited list took place with the publication of the eighth edition. In 2016, the Modern Language Association (MLA) decided it...

Alphabetizing Your  MLA Works Cited List
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You finally have your research paper finished and your sources created into entries and now you can start putting it all together. You’re almost done. Alphabetizing your MLA Works Cited list is easy as it follows the letter by letter method. Read on to understand how this method works when you’re dealing with multiple authors, no author or other cases. List Items Alphabetically  The first step is...

Organizing a MLA Works Cited List
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Unlike a bibliography, a Works Cited list is created to list only the sources you cited in your research paper. Every citation in your paper should match up to an entry in your Works Cited list, which means you need to review your paper to make sure the in-text citations are properly sourced at the end of your paper. If your instructor asks you to prepare a bibliography in MLA style, title it...

Using 3- em Dash in Chicago/Turabian
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While developing your Chicago/Turabian style bibliography or reference list, you may use the 3-em dash method for multiple works by the same author. In the author-date style you will use the publication date to organize your  entries by the same author (or editor, translator).  If you are using the notes-biblio style, you will organize your entries by the title of the work. Creating a 3-em Dash A...

How to Cite Legal Sources in APA
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If you’re using legal sources in your report and are trying to figure out how to fit them into your reference list, you’ll probably feel somewhat confused because, for the most part, APA follows The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation style. However, in some cases, you’ll still follow APA guidelines. Bluebook or APA APA recommends that references to legal materials, such as statutes, court...

APA Reference List: Periodical Examples
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APA Reference List: Periodical Examples. 6th Edition Periodicals are materials that are published on a regular basis. For example, magazines, newsletters, journals may be published daily, weekly, monthly or other regularly scheduled dates. Periodicals follow a general reference form in APA with a few differences. Newspaper articles citations include the year of publication as well as the day;...

How to Alphabetize Your APA Reference List
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You’ve finished your paper and have your references organized and ready to place into your Reference List. You know it needs to be in alphabetical order so that’s pretty easy…a, b, c….  Or is it? But wait! You have three separate works written by the same author and two articles written by people with the same last name, different first names. Okay, so this isn’t as easy as it seems at first...

APA Book Reference Examples
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APA Reference List Citation Examples Creating APA citations for print and ebooks is simple once you understand the format. APA uses the author-date system, which means the author’s last name, first initial and the date of publication are the most important elements of the citation. Citing Print Books in APA BOOK (PRINT) One author Author, A.A. (2001). Title of work. Location: Publisher...

Using a DOI® Link
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You’re gathering your resources together when suddenly you notice that several of your online journal articles aren’t linked to a web address (URL.) What is that mysterious notation at the end of the citation?  You’re used to seeing a link to an online article in this way:  ,when all of the sudden, this doi® number shows up: doi: 130.065.109.155 What does this mean? The Difference Between...

Types of Bibliography Styles
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When it comes to writing styles, there are a lot of them. Whether you’re writing a biology, communications, theology or philosophy research paper or essay, there is a writing style for you. Learn about the different styles, how the reference pages differ and why bibliographies are different. What’s in a Name? In the world of writing, there are bibliographies and then there are...

APA, MLA and, CMOS Footnote Referencing Styles
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You’ve ventured into the wacky world of footnotes. Understanding which styles use them, when they use them and how to use them can have you scratching your head in confusion. Don’t fret! Learn all the different footnotes referencing styles, why you might use footnotes and how to use them through examples. Using Footnotes Footnotes are one way to make in-text citations. Similar to author-date or...

Bibliography for a Research Paper
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Research papers take a lot of different steps to format your outline and discuss where your sources came from. Every paper ends with a citation page or bibliography. The type of bibliography that you use will depend on your research. Bibliography Uncovered Before you can even get into the steps of creating your bibliography, you need to understand specifically what a bibliography is and the best...

Standard Chicago/Turabian Bibliography Template
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Creating a paper is a lot of work. However, before you can sit back and relax, you need to create a bibliography. The bibliography will list all the sources that you used in the creation of your work. Bibliographies are typically found in Chicago, Turabian and Harvard writing styles. Knowing Your Style Different styles use different citation pages. Chicago, Turabian and Harvard can use a...

Bibliography Examples for Students
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It can be hard to know where to start when you are creating your bibliography. Are you creating the right margins? Is the formatting correct? Use examples to make sure that your bibliography is top-notch. It’s All a Bibliography Right? When it comes to a writing a bibliography, it can get confusing. This is because the word bibliography can have a double meaning when it comes to writing styles...

Preliminary Bibliography Examples
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When you’re trying to get your project or research paper organized, it can be helpful to create a preliminary bibliography before jumping in head first. Not only will this help you to organize your research, but it’ll give you a good start on your paper. Preliminary bibs can also help you figure out which sources are keepers or duds. What Is a Preliminary Bibliography? After you hone down...

How to Write a Bibliography for a School Project
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Several school projects can include a research paper. Writing a paper for a school project can be a daunting task. Whether you are writing for college or high school, you need to keep track of the sources that you use and reference them at the end of your paper. The type of reference list or bibliography that you use will depend on you or your professor. What Is a Bibliography? The word...

APA vs MLA Citation Page
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You’ve been looking over the different writing styles and noticed that MLA and APA are similar. Staring at the citation page, you really can’t see a difference between the two. While MLA and APA do have a lot of similarities in the citation pages, there are a few distinct differences that you’ll notice if you really look at them. MLA vs APA If you are comparing MLA and APA, it’ll come to...

Using Endnotes and a Bibliography
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Your professor required that you create endnotes for your in-text citation. You’ve composed your endnote page beautifully. Now, you’re looking at creating the bibliography. But, why? Didn’t you cover everything in your endnotes. Learn the difference and similarities between a bibliography and endnotes. Find out when you’ll use each and why. Endnotes, Bibliography or Both Per the name...

Bibliography Rules and Guidelines
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Your eyes are crossed. You haven’t showered in three days, but your paper is done. Pushing away from your computer, you breathe a much needed sigh of relief. That is until you realize that you haven’t created your bibliography. What’s your style again? How do you create it? Don’t worry. Your guide for all things bibliographical is ready to help. Not All Bibliographies Are Equal In the...

APA Style Citation Format Examples
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Writing your paper was easy-peasy. You had the perfect sources, and everything reads great. Now it’s time to format your reference page. You’re looking at the books, web pages, PDFs, journals and magazines that you used. Formatting each one is slightly different. Break down the format that you should use by looking at a few different examples. Citation Rules There are rules that the...

Works Cited Page Example
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Your paper is perfect! All your in-text quotes have a citation, the formatting is top-notch and you’re now breathing a sigh of relief. Until you realize you don’t have a works cited. Don’t lose your cool. You have the research and the paper, the works cited is a piece of cake. How to Do a Works Cited Page A works cited page is the last page of your MLA style paper. It’ll include your references...

Easy APA Citation Page
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Your professor requested APA format and your paper is done. Time to breathe easy right? What about your references page? You didn’t think to create that while you were writing your paper and now you are staring at it in horror. You have your references, but what should they look like? How should they be formatted? Check out a few examples to make sure you are doing it right. Bibliography vs...

Turabian Style Citations and Bibliography
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Your professor has told you to write your paper in Turabian style, but you’re clueless. You keep seeing this style and Chicago combined. Now you are really confused. Find your answers to what Turabian is and how it’s created. What Is Turabian Style? Turabian is a style covered under the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS). The difference in these styles is who they are created for...

Differences Between Bibliography and Works Cited and References
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Is your head spinning over the difference? Don’t let the terminology get to you. In its most basic form, a reference page, works cited and bibliography are all a page at the end of your paper where you cite the sources that made your essay awesome. Learn when to use a reference, bibliography or works cited along with how they’re different. Time for a Bibliography Knowing when to use a...

How to Make a Citation in MLA, APA, and Chicago/Turabian
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In high school, college and even your career, knowing how to make a citation within your writing is important. The citation lets the reader know where you found the information and where they can find the information. It also makes it clear that these aren’t your thoughts. Citation is all about giving credit where credit is due. Citation is All About Style Whether it’s your clothes, your...

Difference Between Citations and References
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References and citations are the apples and oranges of the writing world. While it might seem like these two words are interchangeable. They are distinctly different within a scholarly writing piece. Learn what they are and how to use each one. Citations or References No matter what writing style that you use, you’ll come across the reference or citation dilemma, especially if you’re a...

How to Write an Annotated Bibliography in MLA Style
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Is your professor asking you to write an annotated bibliography? Are you clueless? You’ve come to the right place. The world of bibliographies can be a difficult web to weave, especially when you are talking about annotated bibliographies. Take a deep breath and get ready. You’re going to learn everything you need to know to make an annotated bibliography in MLA. What Is an Annotated...

How to Write Footnotes in MLA, APA, and Chicago
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The time has come. You need to use footnotes in your paper. The sweat is beading. You’re starting to wonder if there is a way around it. Formatting footnotes isn’t the end of the world, if you know what you’re doing.  When to Use Footnotes in APA Before you delve head first into the world of footnotes, it is important to realize that APA format doesn’t generally recommend using footnotes...

How to Cite the Bible in APA, MLA, Harvard, and Chicago
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The bible is a formidable opponent when it comes to writing. How are you supposed to cite the different elements? How does it vary with each style? The list of questions goes on and on. However, don’t sweat it. Breaking down how to cite the Bible is as easy as A, B, C. First In-Text Citation or Parenthetical Reference There are different places that you might choose to cite the bible, and in-text...

How to Cite a PDF in MLA, APA and, Chicago
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You’ve found the best source ever, but it is a PDF. Don’t overlook it just because you are unsure of how to cite it. Find out how to cite your PDF in your references, no matter which style you are using. Citing a One Author PDF Setting up the citation in your references for a PDF is similar to an e-Book or a digital document. However, depending on different variables, like number of authors, this...