Learn and Master Bibliographies, Works Cited, and References

CategoryStyle Guides

When you are talking about styles for a bibliography page, there are a lot of them out there. Each different style has its own look and feel. They are also designed for a different type of work, whether it be a business thesis or a humanities essay.

What is a Bibliography Page?

Citing your work can come in all different forms. You can cite only the works that you specifically reference in a essay or you can cite everything that you used to create a thesis. What you are citing is what makes one a bibliography and one a works cited.

Bibliography Definition and Examples

Simply put, a bibliography is all the works that you used to created your thesis or essay. This can be a professional paper used in a scholarly journal or an essay for your high school humanities class. Either way, the bibliography offers insight into where your sources and statistics came from. This isn’t just what you cited either; it is every single piece of scholarly information that you used to create your work. To really understand the creation of a bibliography and the style, it’s important to discuss some examples.

Style Examples

When creating a bibliography, there are several different styles that you can use. Each style has different formatting for citations and set up. Each style also has different citation formats for different sources, including but not limited too, books, magazines, websites and blogs. The core styles that you can use are:

American Psychological Association
Modern Language Association
Harvard Referencing
Chicago Manual of Style

Creating Anthology MLA Works Cited Entries 
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Anthologies are collections of writings published in a book or journal. The writings are centered around a similar theme, time or subject matter written by various authors. Collections of poems or short stories by the same author are also anthologies. Types of Anthologies Short stories are collected in an anthology such as this book centered around Chicano/Latino writings published in 2008. The...

Creating Hanging Indents for Your MLA Works Cited List
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As you organize your Works Cited list, you notice each entry is supposed to formatted using hanging indents. If you’re not familiar with this term, you may feel puzzled and unsure what to do next. Hanging Indent Explained It’s really very simple. A hanging indent simply means that the second line is indented five spaces from the first line. If your works cited entry is longer than two lines, keep...

How to Cite an Interview in MLA
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As you research your MLA paper, you may find that using interviews of prominent researchers in your field is a good source. Or you may decide to interview someone yourself. Depending on the type and manner of publication, interviews may be considered primary sources. Primary Source Interviews As you know, a primary source is one that contains original material, not an evaluation of a source. In...

How to Cite Shakespeare in MLA Works Cited
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Teachers assign essays on William Shakespeare in humanities classes frequently, using MLA citation style. Learning about Shakespeare’s works can be fun and there are quite a bit of resources available to help you research and write about them as well. Creating In-Text Citations for Works by Shakespeare While creating in-text or parenthetical citations, list: Act. Scene. Lines. Formatting:...

Citing Scholarly Journal Articles in MLA Works Cited
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Using scholarly journal articles in your MLA essay is a good way to find authoritative sources to back up your thesis statement. Journal articles fall under both primary and secondary sources, depending on the content. When you are searching for relevant articles, read the abstract first. This helps determine whether it will be a useful article for your paper. Finding Journal Articles for Your...

MLA Works Cited Magazine and Newspaper Articles
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In MLA’s latest update, MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition, a container system was developed to help students figure out how to cite sources, like articles, correctly. MLA style is used in the humanities, which includes bibliographic entries for art, music, film, movies and video. With the changing technology, it became difficult for MLA editors to keep up with the changes. Primary and Secondary...

Researching and Writing an APA Psychology Paper
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Psychology is a popular elective course. Many students are curious about the way our minds work. We often try to ‘psychoanalyze’ each other by looking at our behavior and coming up with armchair diagnosis of our teachers and fellow students. However, psychology is a broad field with many sub-fields, including clinical, cognitive and developmental psychology. Selecting Your Topic Depending on your...

Sample Bibliography for an Anthropology Essay
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If you are writing an anthropology essay on the Navajo people, you may choose to talk about housing structures. This  Chicago/Turabian author-date style Sample Bibliography provides five resources for you to start researching this subject. References Drover, Christopher E. 1985. “Navajo Settlement and Architecture in Southeastern California.” Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 7...

Creating a Bibliography for an Anthropology Essay
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Learning about cultures helps students understand how social and family bonds are formed. It helps students empathize with other cultures. Studying anthropology is a broad area and there are many topics to chose from within this subject. Generally, this subject is an elective, but you will learn many interesting things if you chose this course. What is Anthropology? Anthropology is defined as the...

How to Write a History School Paper
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You may feel overwhelmed looking at your history paper assignment. Wondering where to start? It’s easy if you plan your school project before you get started on it. First of all, review the assignment so you understand it before you start. Although your instructor will give you specific guidelines, you can adapt these steps to complete your assignment. Select Your Topic If your instructor gives...

Footnotes or Endnotes?
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If you are writing your college paper using the notes-biblio style or if your teacher asks you to include notes in your paper, you need to know the difference between footnotes and endnotes. Typically, notes are included in Chicago notes-biblio style, but you may include them in an MLA or APA citation style school project if your instructor requires them. The difference is simple: Place footnotes...

When to Use Chicago Notes
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You have your research topic ready to go and you have written your basic outline for your paper. Now what? You look at your assignment instructions and realize your instructor requires using the notes style. What does that even mean? Understanding the use of notes style is important as you begin your college writing journey. What is Notes-Biblio? Notes style or notes-biblio style is part of the...

Using Note Cards for MLA Research Papers
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In today’s digital age, it seems strange that organizing your research sources would be done on index cards. Instead of a mobile app or Google Doc, writing your sources on separate 3 X 5 index cards may still be a better way to help organize your citation sources. Although some teachers provide Word document templates that follow the same pattern, having the cards available makes it easier to...

Difference Between Five-Paragraph Essay and MLA Paper
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In high school, you’ll learn how to write a five-paragraph essay. This skill comes in handy as you learn to develop a thesis statement and organize an essay. Writing a five-paragraph essay is a part of standardized testing, which means it is a useful skill to learn. Organizing a Five-Paragraph Essay When you write a five-paragraph essay, you follow these steps: Introductory paragraph including...

Writing MLA Thesis Statements
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Writing a thesis statement for your MLA style school paper seems intimidating to high school and college students. You may have practice in understanding thesis statements when you prepared five-paragraph essays. Maybe you have even written short five page research papers in your English classes. Writing MLA College Papers However, now you are entering college and you will be writing a lot of...

Understanding APA Literature Reviews
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Teachers often assign research papers to students, especially literature reviews. Literature reviews may be part of a larger research paper or stand alone on their own. Since conducting original research and writing a paper about it takes considerable time, instructors often require students prepare papers such as compare and contrast, critical essays or literature reviews instead. What is a...

APA References, Works Cited and Bibliography Differences
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As we have learned in other articles on this site, there is a difference between the way references are cited. It all depends on what citation style your teacher asks you to use while you’re preparing your school project bibliography. Differences of Style Many people use the terms ‘works cited’, “reference list” and “bibliography” interchangeably, but there are differences. First of all, it...

Creating a School Project in APA Style
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In high school, your instructor typically asks you to write a critical essay or a short research paper on a current event or interesting person. Writing in MLA style and creating a Works Cited page for your references, works well for these papers.  However, if you take psychology or sociology classes in high school or college, you may be asked to write a paper using APA style. Understanding APA...

Developing an APA Annotated Bibliography
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APA Style uses an author-date reference list rather than a bibliography format to cite research sources. A reference list, unlike a bibliography, includes only those sources you cited within your school research paper. Each in-text citation matches a reference list entry. Starting the APA Annotated Bibliography However, your instructor may ask you to develop an annotated bibliography in APA style...

Writing APA Abstracts for a Literature Review
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While developing your APA style school research paper, follow the specific formatting guidelines to finalize your paper. This citation example focuses on writing abstracts for an APA style paper. Learning to write abstracts is a good skill as it helps you develop the ability to summarize the important points in your paper. A busy student can read abstracts to determine if it’s worth the time to...

Citing Visual and Performing Arts in Chicago Author-Date Style
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You may use MLA style to write about art in high school but there is a good chance you’ll be using Chicago/Turabian style in college. If you are writing exclusively about an artist or art history, you will probably be asked to use the Chicago notes-biblio style. The notes-biblio style is ideal for writing about music, history and art because you add notes throughout the text. This allows your...

Citing Audio and Video in Chicago Author Date Style
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While you are researching for your history paper, you will come across many multimedia sources. As primary sources such as photographs and recordings become fragile with age, libraries and other institutions are archiving these precious materials online. Many of these sources are available free through government repositories such as the Library of Congress. Universities, academic and public...

Using Journal Articles in Chicago Author Date style
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Using scholarly journal articles in your research paper is a great way to build up your authoritative sources. Scholarly journals are indexed in databases, such as EBSCO and OCLC. Although many of these academic databases are fee-based, usually your school, college or public library offers free access to students. There are also open-source scholarly journals such as San Jose State University’s...

Citing Reference Works in Chicago Author-Date Style
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You will see the term “reference work “used frequently while doing your research for your school project. But what exactly are reference works? We usually think of dictionaries and encyclopedias when we hear that term; however, other works such as indices, almanacs and catalogs fall under that category. Some reference works are even guides to other reference works. Basically, a reference work is...

Creating Chicago Author-Date Entries For Online Sources
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Creating entries in Chicago/Turabian author-date style is easier than the notes-biblio style. The notes-biblio style works well for research papers where you need to give your reader a lot of background information. However, the author-date style works better for research papers when the primary method of directing your reader to your source is by providing the name of the creator of the work and...

Creating Notes-Biblio Entries for Magazines and Newspaper Articles
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Using magazine and news articles in your school research paper shows variety in your bibliography. Articles are shorter in length and found online easily, although you may wish to visit your library in person. Bringing a full-length book to print takes time and by the time a book is published, there may be updates to the research. Journal articles are published faster; however, it does take time...

Using Journal Articles in Notes-Biblio Style
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After you finish your research for your school paper, you will notice you have several sources obtained from research journal articles. Journal articles are great sources for finding current sources. Your college offers free access to several databases, such as ProQuest or JSTOR. If you don’t have access through your school, ask the reference librarian at your local library to help you. The best...

Using Notes-Biblio Style for Books
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Citation styles, like Chicago, allow for some variations in creating entries. If you have looked at a bibliography at the end of a research article, you will see that bibliographies are created differently. It is still important that you follow the basic format and, you definitely need to use consistency in your entries.  The main purpose of creating bibliographic entries is to lead your reader...

Citing Visual & Performing Arts in Notes-Biblio
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As you research a topic for your art or history class, you may land upon a topic referring to plays, musical scores and/or art exhibition catalogs. For example, if your art history instructor asks you to choose a subject on the Italian Renaissance, you have a wide range of topics to pursue from exploring the highlights of the period to Leonardo da Vinci’s life. It is best if you pick a few ideas...

Creating Notes-Biblio Entries for Multi-Media
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Writing your research paper starts with finding your sources. When you’re writing a paper on history or the arts, it is likely you’ll be using either MLA style or Chicago/Turabian Notes-Biblio Style. Typically, articles on psychology or other social sciences will not have a lot of art sources and you will use author-date citation styles such as APA or Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style. MLA and...

Sectioning Your Bibliography in Notes-Biblio Style
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Creating a bibliography guides your readers to all the sources you have consulted or used in research. As you prepare your research paper, you look for sources that will back up your thesis statement. You may realize as you work through this process, that you need to revise your thesis or the way you present your arguments. Developing a preliminary or working bibliography allows you to gather...

MLA: Understanding the Core Elements of Works Cited
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MLA Style is designed to be flexible since it’s used in the arts and humanities. The Eighth Edition of MLA Handbook provides an easy way to create entries for different sources, such as artworks, videos and printed materials. MLA Elements There are nine elements to each entry in an MLA Works Cited list. The Eighth Edition has revised these elements so if your instructor requires to you to use the...

Using the Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style for Books
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Depending on the type of Chicago style you are using, you’ll either create a notes-biblio style bibliography or an author-date style reference list. The author-date style is used a lot in the natural and physical sciences plus social sciences. In this style, the author’s name and the date of publication are considered the best way to identify the sources you’ve used to create your paper. Using...

Creating a Chicago/Turabian Style Reference List
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If you used the author-date Chicago/Turabian style while creating your paper instead of the notes-biblio style, you will need to create a reference list rather than a bibliography. The reference list is basically the same as the bibliography; however, you’ll title the page References and you do not need to include all the sources you consulted. You do need to include all the sources that you...

MLA 7th Edition vs MLA 8th Edition
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As you start to prepare your paper in MLA Style, you realize you don’t know if you should use the seventh edition or the eighth edition of the” MLA Handbook”. You may think there’s not much difference but, in this case, a shift in creating entries for your Works Cited list took place with the publication of the eighth edition. In 2016, the Modern Language Association (MLA) decided it...

Organizing a MLA Works Cited List
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Unlike a bibliography, a Works Cited list is created to list only the sources you cited in your research paper. Every citation in your paper should match up to an entry in your Works Cited list, which means you need to review your paper to make sure the in-text citations are properly sourced at the end of your paper. If your instructor asks you to prepare a bibliography in MLA style, title it...

APA Book Reference Examples
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APA Reference List Citation Examples Creating APA citations for print and ebooks is simple once you understand the format. APA uses the author-date system, which means the author’s last name, first initial and the date of publication are the most important elements of the citation. Citing Print Books in APA BOOK (PRINT) One author Author, A.A. (2001). Title of work. Location: Publisher...

Types of Bibliography Styles
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When it comes to writing styles, there are a lot of them. Whether you’re writing a biology, communications, theology or philosophy research paper or essay, there is a writing style for you. Learn about the different styles, how the reference pages differ and why bibliographies are different. What’s in a Name? In the world of writing, there are bibliographies and then there are...

Bibliography for a Research Paper
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Research papers take a lot of different steps to format your outline and discuss where your sources came from. Every paper ends with a citation page or bibliography. The type of bibliography that you use will depend on your research. Bibliography Uncovered Before you can even get into the steps of creating your bibliography, you need to understand specifically what a bibliography is and the best...

APA vs MLA Citation Page
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You’ve been looking over the different writing styles and noticed that MLA and APA are similar. Staring at the citation page, you really can’t see a difference between the two. While MLA and APA do have a lot of similarities in the citation pages, there are a few distinct differences that you’ll notice if you really look at them. MLA vs APA If you are comparing MLA and APA, it’ll come to...

Using Endnotes and a Bibliography
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Your professor required that you create endnotes for your in-text citation. You’ve composed your endnote page beautifully. Now, you’re looking at creating the bibliography. But, why? Didn’t you cover everything in your endnotes. Learn the difference and similarities between a bibliography and endnotes. Find out when you’ll use each and why. Endnotes, Bibliography or Both Per the name...

Bibliography Rules and Guidelines
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Your eyes are crossed. You haven’t showered in three days, but your paper is done. Pushing away from your computer, you breathe a much needed sigh of relief. That is until you realize that you haven’t created your bibliography. What’s your style again? How do you create it? Don’t worry. Your guide for all things bibliographical is ready to help. Not All Bibliographies Are Equal In the...

Turabian Style Citations and Bibliography
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Your professor has told you to write your paper in Turabian style, but you’re clueless. You keep seeing this style and Chicago combined. Now you are really confused. Find your answers to what Turabian is and how it’s created. What Is Turabian Style? Turabian is a style covered under the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS). The difference in these styles is who they are created for...

Differences Between Bibliography and Works Cited and References
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Is your head spinning over the difference? Don’t let the terminology get to you. In its most basic form, a reference page, works cited and bibliography are all a page at the end of your paper where you cite the sources that made your essay awesome. Learn when to use a reference, bibliography or works cited along with how they’re different. Time for a Bibliography Knowing when to use a...

Difference Between Citations and References
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References and citations are the apples and oranges of the writing world. While it might seem like these two words are interchangeable. They are distinctly different within a scholarly writing piece. Learn what they are and how to use each one. Citations or References No matter what writing style that you use, you’ll come across the reference or citation dilemma, especially if you’re a...

How to Write an Annotated Bibliography in MLA Style
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Is your professor asking you to write an annotated bibliography? Are you clueless? You’ve come to the right place. The world of bibliographies can be a difficult web to weave, especially when you are talking about annotated bibliographies. Take a deep breath and get ready. You’re going to learn everything you need to know to make an annotated bibliography in MLA. What Is an Annotated...

APA Style Guidelines for Multiple Authors
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Figuring out how to format your work with just one author was hard enough. Now, you have a book that has three different authors and one with eleven different authors. You know all those names are just going to clutter up your APA essay. Learn the right way to source multiple authors in the APA style. Creating a Parenthetical Citation Whether you have a book or magazine with multiple sources, the...

Citations for Quotes in APA Style
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You think adding quote citations is going to be simple. But suddenly you have one book with multiple authors and another book with no date. You’re trying to add a citation for a website quote with no author or date. Plus, you have an interview. Simple citations have become a mess. Break down citations for books, websites and even interviews in even the most difficult of situations. Book...

Tips on Citing a Poem in MLA Style
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Hath thou ever cited a poem before? Citing a poem in MLA format isn’t life or death, it’s simply a matter of knowing the format. Not only will your writing be flawless, but your poem quotations will be impeccable. How to Cite a Poem In-Text Poems come in all shapes and sizes. They can be the size of a novel or as few as two lines. Therefore, it makes sense that citing a poem in the text takes on...