Learn and Generate Bibliographies, Citations, and Works Cited

CategoryStyle Guides

When you are talking about styles for a bibliography page, there are a lot of them out there. Each different style has its own look and feel. They are also designed for a different type of work, whether it be a business thesis or a humanities essay.

What is a Bibliography Page?

Citing your work can come in all different forms. You can cite only the works that you specifically reference in a essay or you can cite everything that you used to create a thesis. What you are citing is what makes one a bibliography and one a works cited.

Bibliography Definition and Examples

Simply put, a bibliography is all the works that you used to created your thesis or essay. This can be a professional paper used in a scholarly journal or an essay for your high school humanities class. Either way, the bibliography offers insight into where your sources and statistics came from. This isn’t just what you cited either; it is every single piece of scholarly information that you used to create your work. To really understand the creation of a bibliography and the style, it’s important to discuss some examples.

Style Examples

When creating a bibliography, there are several different styles that you can use. Each style has different formatting for citations and set up. Each style also has different citation formats for different sources, including but not limited too, books, magazines, websites and blogs. The core styles that you can use are:

American Psychological Association
Modern Language Association
Harvard Referencing
Chicago Manual of Style

Chicago Style Citations and Format
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Writing your first academic paper in Chicago 17 format can be a real nail biter. Not only is the official manual massive, but it can be difficult to know which Chicago style citations to use. Breeze through your essay by breaking down the Chicago and Turabian style format into digestible chunks with a straightforward and comprehensive guide. Should You Use Chicago Style? College writing is never...

MLA Format and Citations
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Writing your first paper in MLA format can be a bit scary, to say the least. Use this simple yet comprehensive guide on all things MLA 8 style to take you through the step-by-step process of creating your MLA style paper and works cited, including proper MLA citations. The examples and illustrations will ensure that you don’t get led astray in your MLA essay. Deciding on MLA Format and Citations...

APA Format and Citations
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When it comes to writing styles, the format for APA citations can be a formidable foe. However, if you break down APA format into the basics, it doesn’t really look so scary. Use this easy-to-follow format and citations guide to break down APA 6 style and research writing into easy steps. Deciding on APA Style As a student, you might not have a choice on what citation style you use to write...

How to Do a Chicago Style Bibliography
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Chicago style guidelines require either a full bibliography of all the works consulted during your research or a reference list of sources cited specifically in your paper. Turabian is a student version of Chicago style. Two Citation Styles Chicago style comes in two citation styles: author-date and notes-bibliography With author-date, you list all cited sources. By comparison, with notes...

How to Write an APA Bibliography
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APA 6 style guidelines require a reference list of all the sources you included in your research paper. APA references follow the author-date style of citation. You may be asked to create an annotated APA bibliography, however. This could be a separate assignment or part of the larger research project. This goes above and beyond the basic reference list with a brief discussion of each entry...

MLA Citation Rules and Guidelines
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Every citation format includes a list of sourced references at the end of your school research paper. These references detail the elements of the sources you used to conduct your research in the form of a bibliography. When formatting the MLA 8 works cited page for your humanities paper, be sure to follow these guidelines and rules for proper MLA citation. Citation Rules for MLA Works Cited In...

APA Citation Guidelines
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APA 6 citation follows the author-date style of formatting in-text and reference list entries. In APA author-date style, the last name of the author and the first name initial is the first element. After that, the year of publication is added to the citation, followed by the rest of the source data. A citation is the combination of the in-text citation and the full source citation in the...

MLA Citation Guide for Essays and Papers
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Creating citations in MLA format is meant to be easy and flexible. When studying the humanities, you’ll rely heavily on sources from art, historical records, film and video. As you can find these sources on different platforms, the container system was developed to accommodate flexible MLA 8 citation formats. MLA In-Text Citation Format  Use in-text or parenthetical citations when you...

APA Style Guide With Referencing and Formatting Tips
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Although APA 6 style is used primarily in college and post-graduate studies, it is possible that your high school instructors will ask you to use this editorial style. APA citation follows the author-date format, which makes it easy to follow sources by looking for the author and the year of publication.  Overview of APA Style APA style was developed by the American Psychological Association to...

Chicago/Turabian Citation Styles Explained
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The Chicago style of formatting citations was developed by the University of Chicago Press. The rules are outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) 17th edition. There is also a shorter, easier version of Chicago style for students called Turabian. These rules are outlined in A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Chicago style citations consist of the author...

Simple Chicago/Turabian Style Guide
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Chicago 17 style is used in writing research papers. Most students learn about this editorial style in college or post-graduate work. The terms Chicago and Turabian are often used interchangeably by teachers, which may cause some confusion. Turabian is a student version of Chicago style format; they follow the same format. Although it’s unlikely middle or high school students will use...

Easy MLA Style Guide for Students
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As you enter middle and high school English classes, you will be asked to write papers in the MLA format. Using MLA 8 may seem confusing at first; however, as you gain skills, you’ll realize that writing in this style actually helps you organize your paper, do research and avoid plagiarism. Understanding MLA style is the first step to a successful research writing experience. Overview of...

Chicago/Turabian Citation Basics
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Students encounter several different citation styles for formatting essays and research papers. However, even though there are editorial citation styles for every research field, students will primarily use three styles: APA, MLA and Chicago/Turabian. Chicago/Turabian Format Published by the University of Chicago Press, Chicago 17 style is the most extensive of the three citation styles. The...

MLA Format Basics
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Students start writing essays in middle school English classes. Their first assignments will be short essays, like the standard five-paragraph essay. As they progress through high school and college, they will learn how to research and write longer papers for different subjects using citation style guides like MLA 8. Usually, MLA format is the first style that students learn to use. Technology...

APA Citation Format Guidelines and Examples
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As students enter middle school, they start learning how to research and format essays. As they progress through high school, this writing and research process becomes more complicated. This may include learning the basic format for an APA citation. Before this, though, students must learn about the need to correctly cite the sources they use in their writing. Understanding the reasons behind...

APA Block Quote Format
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APA format papers are written for social science fields such as psychology. As such, the material tends to be complex using high language. When you’re preparing your APA 6 paper, you may find yourself using longer quotations from other researchers to strengthen your argument. Using long quotations is acceptable in APA 6 style. These style rules require that any direct quotations that are 40 words...

Chicago Block Quote Format With Examples
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Adding quotations from books and plays can be an important part of your paper. Quotations strengthen your argument or add emphasis to a discussion about an author’s writing style or genre. The Chicago 17 style block quote format is the same for both author-date and notes style. You can even incorporate quotations within a note, if needed. However, most school and college essays do not require...

MLA Block Quote Format
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Including quotations to your MLA 8 school essay or research paper adds strength to it. Quotes help the reader understand the original sources while also reinforcing your thesis. Although you don’t want to overuse long quotations in your paper, it is sometimes necessary, particularly for poems. To properly set the quote off from the rest of the paper, you’ll need to format it correctly. In MLA...

Writing Numbers in MLA Style
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You’ll need to know when and how to write out numbers in your MLA 8 style school essay. The rules are easy to follow as MLA format tries to make it simple to write and organize papers in this style. Arabic or Roman Numerals Although you will use Arabic numerals (e.g., 1, 2, 3) for numbers that are not spelled out, you may use Roman numerals (e.g., I, II, III) in certain cases. For example, the...

Citing an Introduction or Afterword in MLA
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No matter what style you’re using for your school paper, you should cite from authoritative sources. Verify the information comes from a valid, authoritative source by checking the authenticity of the website, author, and/or the organization that published it. This includes citing an afterword or preface in your MLA 8 paper. Establishing Authority in Your School Paper Many times, you can...

Format an APA PowerPoint Reference Slide
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In addition to an APA 6 research paper, your teacher may also ask you to prepare a PowerPoint slideshow presentation. Just like any other research presentation, you must include proper citations of your sources for your PowerPoint or Prezi slideshow presentation. APA In-Text Citations for PowerPoint As you prepare your slideshow presentations in APA 6, you’ll need to distill your research...

How to Cite a PowerPoint Presentation in MLA
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It’s pretty common to have a slideshow presentation in a meeting or classroom lecture. These visuals help attendees view graphs and follow along with the lecturer. It also makes it a little easier to take notes. Many times, presentations are even uploaded to websites for later viewing. If you want to reference a PowerPoint presentation in your MLA 8 paper, you’ll need to know how to cite it...

How to Format Your MLA Cover Page
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Formatting your MLA 8 paper is important to the overall presentation of your paper. As part of the learning process, your teacher will require you to format your essay by following MLA rules. The cover page is critical to your overall paper, as it’s the first impression your instructor and readers will see. However, in MLA format, a formal cover page is not required. MLA Cover Page Formatting...

How to Properly Punctuate a MLA Works Cited Page
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Arranging your MLA 8 works cited page properly with the correct punctuation is an important part of finalizing your school research assignment. Your teacher will provide guidance as to any particular formatting issues; however, in general, you should adhere to the following rules. Basic Works Cited Punctuation MLA format doesn’t have a lot of fancy punctuation rules. For the most part, it’s...

Citing PowerPoint in Chicago/Turabian Style  
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It’s common for instructors to use slideshow presentations during class lectures. It’s acceptable to use lectures as a cited source. However, it’s best to use them sparingly. Instead, find peer-reviewed journal articles or books by authoritative sources to back up your research. One way to use PowerPoint slideshow presentations in your Chicago 17 style paper is to review the bibliography for the...

How to Cite a Powerpoint in APA Format
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Students may find useful sources prepared in slideshow format, like in PowerPoint or Prezi. Lectures, meeting notes and other primary sources can be found in these presentations. Just like with any other source, you must cite PowerPoint presentations correctly in your APA reference list. PowerPoint Slideshow APA Citation While citing lectures, meeting notes or other slideshow presentations...

Using Footnotes and Endnotes in the Same Essay
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Sometimes you may notice a book or journal article with both footnotes and endnotes. Typically, a Chicago 17 school paper will not include both; however, if you are writing a research paper that has several notes that are dense (substantive notes), you may want these as footnotes, and then you can put your source citations in your bibliography. Difference Between Substantive and Citation Source...

Citing Multiple Sources in APA With the Same Author
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As you conduct research on a particular topic, you will come across the same authors who publish frequently. Researchers tend to focus on a particular area and continue to publish within it. When you have multiple sources by the same author, you’ll need to distinguish between them in your APA citations. Also, it’s important you check publication dates to make sure you are following the most...

Creating APA Citations for Websites With No Author
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When you come across a relevant article published on a website, you may want to include it as a source for your APA 6 style paper. Unfortunately, many times online articles may not have an author byline. The way to format APA citations with no author is to use the article’s title instead. Although it is acceptable to include information from sources with no author listed, make sure it at...

How Is the Reference List Arranged in APA?
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Arranging your APA 6 reference list in the proper format is an important part of completing your research paper. As you prepare and write your paper, you should compile a preliminary reference list or bibliography that contains all the information you need for your citations. Make sure all your citations are accurate and lead your reader directly to the same source you used for your paper. APA...

Chicago Annotated Bibliography Format and Example
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Bibliographies are an important part of a Chicago 17 style research paper. At the end of your paper, you are required to include a bibliography of the sources you consulted. Unlike a works cited or reference list, you include all the works you consulted for research, not just the ones you cited in your paper. What Is an Annotated Bibliography? An annotated bibliography is a list of relevant...

Footnotes in APA With Format Tips and Examples
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Generally, using footnotes is associated with Chicago notes-biblio style. Even so, other styles do use them sometimes. With APA 6 style, you should use footnotes only when you absolutely must. Ask your instructor for clarification. The purpose of footnotes is to add to or clarify a point. Footnotes are also used to add copyright information. Types of APA Footnotes There are two types of footnotes...

Citing Technical and Research Reports in APA
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As you research for your APA 6 style school paper, you’ll likely come across sources in the form of technical and research reports. These types of reports are useful as secondary sources. They can help you find primary sources, but you shouldn’t rely on them as the basis of your thesis. However, original qualitative and quantitative research papers are considered primary sources. Basic APA...

APA Poster Presentation, Meeting, and Symposia Citations
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Professional organizations, government agencies, and corporations often host conferences in which researchers can present new material and ideas to their peers. Conferences tend to be large multi-day events while a symposium is a smaller gathering, usually conducted in one day. Learn how to format symposia citations in APA 6 correctly to add this material to your APA citation research paper...

Citing of Six or More Multiple Authors in APA
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Many times, researchers in a particular field will write papers together. At times, multiple authors, even eight or more, will collaborate on an extensive research paper. This can be confusing while creating your APA 6 reference list, but it doesn’t need to be. Creating Reference List Entries for Multiple Authors When a source has multiple authors, follow this format for your APA citation...

APA Citations for a Thesis or Dissertation
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Using doctoral dissertations and master’s theses is a useful way to bolster your research for your APA format school paper. As post graduate students are required to do original research for their theses, these sources cover current, timely topics. Follow the examples below for how to format thesis citations for your APA references list. Doctoral Dissertation and Master’s Thesis Sources Teachers...

Reviews and Peer Commentary APA Citations
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Although reviews of books, movies, video games and other published entertainment are not primary sources, they can still be helpful in your research. As such, you’ll need to know how to cite reviews as part of writing your APA 6 format research paper. Where to Find Reviews You can find reviews in many places, including: Magazines Newspapers Websites Blogs Even your local small-town...

Citing a Reference Book in APA
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One frequently asked question by students is how to properly cite a reference book, such as a dictionary or encyclopedia, in APA format. Reference books are useful to supplement your research. However, you should use them primarily as a secondary sources to find more primary sources to back up your thesis. That will make for a stronger APA 6 style paper. Creating an APA Citation Creating a...

Using Ibid in a Chicago Style Bibliography
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As you collect your sources and create your preliminary bibliography, you may choose to use Chicago notes-biblio style to prepare your research paper. As you’re reading through journal articles, you may notice the term “ibid.” in the notes section. It’s important to know how and when to use ibid. correctly in your bibliography. What is Ibid? In past years, it was common to use...

How to Cite the Bible in a Chicago Style Bibliography
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Most citation styles do not require a bibliographic entry to cite the Bible and other scared works. This includes Chicago author-date or notes-biblio style. However, you do need to create an in-text or parenthetical citation in your paper when referencing the Bible. Creating Biblical Citations While creating biblical citations, include the abbreviated name of the book, the chapter number, and the...

Arranging Numbers in Works Cited List
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When writing a school paper in MLA 8 style, you will need to know how to format your works cited page. Hopefully, you’ve created a working or preliminary bibliography as you did your research. Now, you simply take your preliminary works cited page and start arranging it as required. One common question is whether numbers come before letters. The quick answer is “no.” Instead, follow...

MLA Works Cited for Movies, Films, and TV Shows
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If you’re writing a school essay using MLA format and need to cite films, movies or television shows, you can do so easily. MLA 8 is designed to be flexible to accommodate different platforms and versions. The container system enables you to emphasize relevant details, so your citations will always be on point. Films or Movies? “Films” and “movies” are synonymous, so you...

How to Cite the Bible in MLA Works Cited
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Most citation styles, such as APA and Chicago/Turabian, do not require you to include entries for the Bible in bibliographies or reference lists. MLA 8 style, on the other hand, does require a works cited entry. Cite the Bible or other religious texts using the MLA container system. Creating an MLA Entry for a Bible Source Using the nine core elements of MLA format, the first element will be the...

Citing an Anthology in MLA Works Cited Pages
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Anthologies are collections of writings published in a book or journal. The writings center around a similar theme, time or subject matter. Oftentimes, this involves various authors. However, collections of poems or short stories by the same author are also anthologies. How you cite an anthology in MLA style depends on whether you are referencing the whole anthology or a single entry in it. Types...

Creating Hanging Indents for a MLA Works Cited
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As you organize your MLA 8 works cited list, you will notice that each entry should be formatted with hanging indents. If you’re not familiar with this term, you may feel puzzled and unsure what to do next. Thankfully, it’s actually quite straightforward. The Hanging Indent Explained An MLA citation hanging indent simply means that the second line is indented five spaces from the first line...

How to Cite an Interview in MLA
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As you research your academic paper, you may find that using interviews of prominent researchers in your field is a good source of information. You may even decide to interview someone yourself! Depending on the type and manner of publication, interviews may be considered primary sources. Use the container system with the nine core elements when you cite an interview in MLA 8 style. Primary...

How to Cite Shakespeare in MLA Works Cited
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Teachers frequently assign essays on William Shakespeare in English literature and humanities classes. Thus, it’s important to know how to cite Shakespeare using the MLA citation style. Learning about Shakespeare’s works can be a lot of fun, too. There are many resources available to help you research and write your MLA 8 paper about this topic. Creating In-Text Citations for Works by...

Citing Scholarly Journal Articles in MLA Works Cited
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Using scholarly journal articles in your MLA 8 essay is a good way to find authoritative sources to back up your thesis statement. Depending on their content, journal articles can be primary or secondary sources. When searching for relevant articles, read the abstract first. This will help you determine whether the article will be a useful addition for your paper. Using Journal Article Databases...

MLA Works Cited for Magazine or Newspaper Articles
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In MLA’s latest update, MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition, a container system was developed to help students figure out how to cite sources, like magazine and newspaper articles, correctly. MLA style is used in the humanities, which includes bibliographic entries for art, music, film, movies and video. With rapidly evolving technology, it became difficult for MLA editors to keep up with the changes...

Researching and Writing an APA Psychology Paper
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Psychology is a popular elective course. Many students are curious about the way our minds work. We often try to “psychoanalyze” each other by looking at our behavior and coming up with armchair diagnoses of our teachers and fellow students. However, psychology is a broad field with many sub-fields, including clinical, cognitive and developmental psychology. Get top marks on your APA...