Learn and Master Bibliographies, Works Cited, and References

CategoryStyle Guides

When you are talking about styles for a bibliography page, there are a lot of them out there. Each different style has its own look and feel. They are also designed for a different type of work, whether it be a business thesis or a humanities essay.

What is a Bibliography Page?

Citing your work can come in all different forms. You can cite only the works that you specifically reference in a essay or you can cite everything that you used to create a thesis. What you are citing is what makes one a bibliography and one a works cited.

Bibliography Definition and Examples

Simply put, a bibliography is all the works that you used to created your thesis or essay. This can be a professional paper used in a scholarly journal or an essay for your high school humanities class. Either way, the bibliography offers insight into where your sources and statistics came from. This isn’t just what you cited either; it is every single piece of scholarly information that you used to create your work. To really understand the creation of a bibliography and the style, it’s important to discuss some examples.

Style Examples

When creating a bibliography, there are several different styles that you can use. Each style has different formatting for citations and set up. Each style also has different citation formats for different sources, including but not limited too, books, magazines, websites and blogs. The core styles that you can use are:

American Psychological Association
Modern Language Association
Harvard Referencing
Chicago Manual of Style

Citing Visual and Performing Arts in Chicago Author-Date Style
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You may use MLA style to write about art in high school but there is a good chance you’ll be using Chicago/Turabian style in college. If you are writing exclusively about an artist or art history, you will probably be asked to use the Chicago notes-biblio style. The notes-biblio style is ideal for writing about music, history and art because you add notes throughout the text. This allows your...

Citing Audio and Video in Chicago Author Date Style
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While you are researching for your history paper, you will come across many multimedia sources. As primary sources such as photographs and recordings become fragile with age, libraries and other institutions are archiving these precious materials online. Many of these sources are available free through government repositories such as the Library of Congress. Universities, academic and public...

Using Journal Articles in Chicago Author Date style
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Using scholarly journal articles in your research paper is a great way to build up your authoritative sources. Scholarly journals are indexed in databases, such as EBSCO and OCLC. Although many of these academic databases are fee-based, usually your school, college or public library offers free access to students. There are also open-source scholarly journals such as San Jose State University’s...

Citing Reference Works in Chicago Author-Date Style
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You will see the term “reference work “used frequently while doing your research for your school project. But what exactly are reference works? We usually think of dictionaries and encyclopedias when we hear that term; however, other works such as indices, almanacs and catalogs fall under that category. Some reference works are even guides to other reference works. Basically, a reference work is...

Creating Chicago Author-Date Entries For Online Sources
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Creating entries in Chicago/Turabian author-date style is easier than the notes-biblio style. The notes-biblio style works well for research papers where you need to give your reader a lot of background information. However, the author-date style works better for research papers when the primary method of directing your reader to your source is by providing the name of the creator of the work and...

Creating Notes-Biblio Entries for Magazines and Newspaper Articles
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Using magazine and news articles in your school research paper shows variety in your bibliography. Articles are shorter in length and found online easily, although you may wish to visit your library in person. Bringing a full-length book to print takes time and by the time a book is published, there may be updates to the research. Journal articles are published faster; however, it does take time...

Using Journal Articles in Notes-Biblio Style
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After you finish your research for your school paper, you will notice you have several sources obtained from research journal articles. Journal articles are great sources for finding current sources. Your college offers free access to several databases, such as ProQuest or JSTOR. If you don’t have access through your school, ask the reference librarian at your local library to help you. The best...

Citing Visual & Performing Arts in Notes-Biblio
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As you research a topic for your art or history class, you may land upon a topic referring to plays, musical scores and/or art exhibition catalogs. For example, if your art history instructor asks you to choose a subject on the Italian Renaissance, you have a wide range of topics to pursue from exploring the highlights of the period to Leonardo da Vinci’s life. It is best if you pick a few ideas...

Creating Notes-Biblio Entries for Multi-Media
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Writing your research paper starts with finding your sources. When you’re writing a paper on history or the arts, it is likely you’ll be using either MLA style or Chicago/Turabian Notes-Biblio Style. Typically, articles on psychology or other social sciences will not have a lot of art sources and you will use author-date citation styles such as APA or Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style. MLA and...

Sectioning Your Bibliography in Notes-Biblio Style
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Creating a bibliography guides your readers to all the sources you have consulted or used in research. As you prepare your research paper, you look for sources that will back up your thesis statement. You may realize as you work through this process, that you need to revise your thesis or the way you present your arguments. Developing a preliminary or working bibliography allows you to gather...

MLA: Understanding the Core Elements of Works Cited
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MLA Style is designed to be flexible since it’s used in the arts and humanities. The Eighth Edition of MLA Handbook provides an easy way to create entries for different sources, such as artworks, videos and printed materials. MLA Elements There are nine elements to each entry in an MLA Works Cited list. The Eighth Edition has revised these elements so if your instructor requires to you to use the...

Using the Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style for Books
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Depending on the type of Chicago style you are using, you’ll either create a notes-biblio style bibliography or an author-date style reference list. The author-date style is used a lot in the natural and physical sciences plus social sciences. In this style, the author’s name and the date of publication are considered the best way to identify the sources you’ve used to create your paper. Using...

Creating a Chicago/Turabian Style Reference List
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If you used the author-date Chicago/Turabian style while creating your paper instead of the notes-biblio style, you will need to create a reference list rather than a bibliography. The reference list is basically the same as the bibliography; however, you’ll title the page References and you do not need to include all the sources you consulted. You do need to include all the sources that you...

MLA 7th Edition vs MLA 8th Edition
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As you start to prepare your paper in MLA Style, you realize you don’t know if you should use the seventh edition or the eighth edition of the” MLA Handbook”. You may think there’s not much difference but, in this case, a shift in creating entries for your Works Cited list took place with the publication of the eighth edition. In 2016, the Modern Language Association (MLA) decided it...

Organizing a MLA Works Cited List
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Unlike a bibliography, a Works Cited list is created to list only the sources you cited in your research paper. Every citation in your paper should match up to an entry in your Works Cited list, which means you need to review your paper to make sure the in-text citations are properly sourced at the end of your paper. If your instructor asks you to prepare a bibliography in MLA style, title it...

Types of Bibliography Styles
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When it comes to writing styles, there are a lot of them. Whether you’re writing a biology, communications, theology or philosophy research paper or essay, there is a writing style for you. Learn about the different styles, how the reference pages differ and why bibliographies are different. What’s in a Name? In the world of writing, there are bibliographies and then there are...

Bibliography for a Research Paper
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Research papers take a lot of different steps to format your outline and discuss where your sources came from. Every paper ends with a citation page or bibliography. The type of bibliography that you use will depend on your research. Bibliography Uncovered Before you can even get into the steps of creating your bibliography, you need to understand specifically what a bibliography is and the best...

APA vs MLA Citation Page
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You’ve been looking over the different writing styles and noticed that MLA and APA are similar. Staring at the citation page, you really can’t see a difference between the two. While MLA and APA do have a lot of similarities in the citation pages, there are a few distinct differences that you’ll notice if you really look at them. MLA vs APA If you are comparing MLA and APA, it’ll come to...

Using Endnotes and a Bibliography
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Your professor required that you create endnotes for your in-text citation. You’ve composed your endnote page beautifully. Now, you’re looking at creating the bibliography. But, why? Didn’t you cover everything in your endnotes. Learn the difference and similarities between a bibliography and endnotes. Find out when you’ll use each and why. Endnotes, Bibliography or Both Per the name...

Bibliography Rules and Guidelines
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Your eyes are crossed. You haven’t showered in three days, but your paper is done. Pushing away from your computer, you breathe a much needed sigh of relief. That is until you realize that you haven’t created your bibliography. What’s your style again? How do you create it? Don’t worry. Your guide for all things bibliographical is ready to help. Not All Bibliographies Are Equal In the...

Turabian Style Citations and Bibliography
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Your professor has told you to write your paper in Turabian style, but you’re clueless. You keep seeing this style and Chicago combined. Now you are really confused. Find your answers to what Turabian is and how it’s created. What Is Turabian Style? Turabian is a style covered under the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS). The difference in these styles is who they are created for...

Differences Between Bibliography and Works Cited and References
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Is your head spinning over the difference? Don’t let the terminology get to you. In its most basic form, a reference page, works cited and bibliography are all a page at the end of your paper where you cite the sources that made your essay awesome. Learn when to use a reference, bibliography or works cited along with how they’re different. Time for a Bibliography Knowing when to use a...

Difference Between Citations and References
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References and citations are the apples and oranges of the writing world. While it might seem like these two words are interchangeable. They are distinctly different within a scholarly writing piece. Learn what they are and how to use each one. Citations or References No matter what writing style that you use, you’ll come across the reference or citation dilemma, especially if you’re a...

How to Write an Annotated Bibliography in MLA Style
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Is your professor asking you to write an annotated bibliography? Are you clueless? You’ve come to the right place. The world of bibliographies can be a difficult web to weave, especially when you are talking about annotated bibliographies. Take a deep breath and get ready. You’re going to learn everything you need to know to make an annotated bibliography in MLA. What Is an Annotated...

APA Style Guidelines for Multiple Authors
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Figuring out how to format your work with just one author was hard enough. Now, you have a book that has three different authors and one with eleven different authors. You know all those names are just going to clutter up your APA essay. Learn the right way to source multiple authors in the APA style. Creating a Parenthetical Citation Whether you have a book or magazine with multiple sources, the...

Citations for Quotes in APA Style
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You think adding quote citations is going to be simple. But suddenly you have one book with multiple authors and another book with no date. You’re trying to add a citation for a website quote with no author or date. Plus, you have an interview. Simple citations have become a mess. Break down citations for books, websites and even interviews in even the most difficult of situations. Book...

Tips on Citing a Poem in MLA Style
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Hath thou ever cited a poem before? Citing a poem in MLA format isn’t life or death, it’s simply a matter of knowing the format. Not only will your writing be flawless, but your poem quotations will be impeccable. How to Cite a Poem In-Text Poems come in all shapes and sizes. They can be the size of a novel or as few as two lines. Therefore, it makes sense that citing a poem in the text takes on...