Learn and Master Bibliographies, Works Cited, and References

CategoryStyle Guides

When you are talking about styles for a bibliography page, there are a lot of them out there. Each different style has its own look and feel. They are also designed for a different type of work, whether it be a business thesis or a humanities essay.

What is a Bibliography Page?

Citing your work can come in all different forms. You can cite only the works that you specifically reference in a essay or you can cite everything that you used to create a thesis. What you are citing is what makes one a bibliography and one a works cited.

Bibliography Definition and Examples

Simply put, a bibliography is all the works that you used to created your thesis or essay. This can be a professional paper used in a scholarly journal or an essay for your high school humanities class. Either way, the bibliography offers insight into where your sources and statistics came from. This isn’t just what you cited either; it is every single piece of scholarly information that you used to create your work. To really understand the creation of a bibliography and the style, it’s important to discuss some examples.

Style Examples

When creating a bibliography, there are several different styles that you can use. Each style has different formatting for citations and set up. Each style also has different citation formats for different sources, including but not limited too, books, magazines, websites and blogs. The core styles that you can use are:

American Psychological Association
Modern Language Association
Harvard Referencing
Chicago Manual of Style

Listing Multiple Works by the Same Author in APA References
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As you conduct research on a particular topic, you will notice you come across the same authors who publish frequently. That is because researchers tend to focus on a particular area and continue to publish in it. It’s important you check publication dates to make sure you are aware of the most current research. Collaborating Authors Because there are a limited number of researchers in a...

How to Cite a Website with No Author in APA
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When you come across a relevant article published on a website, you may want to include that as a source for your APA paper. Unfortunately, many times online articles may not have an author byline. In that case, you will need to use the title of the article in place of the author’s name. Creating Citations for Online Articles Even if you do not know the author’s name or even the date of an...

Arranging Your APA Reference List
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Arranging your APA Reference list in the proper format is an important part of completing your research paper. As you prepare and write your paper, you should be compiling a preliminary reference list or bibliography that contains all the information you need for your citations. Make sure all your citations are accurate and lead your reader directly to the same source you used for your paper...

Chicago Annotated Bibliography Entries
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Bibliographies are an important part of a Chicago style research paper. At the end of your paper, you are required to include a bibliography of the sources you consulted. Unlike a works cited or reference list, you include all the works you consulted for research, not just the ones you cited in your paper. What is an Annotated Bibliography An annotated bibliography is a list of relevant sources...

In-Text and Parenthetical Citations
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As you start researching and writing your school paper, you’ll notice discussion about in-text and parenthetical citations. You may wonder if these are two different things and are confused about how to use these. You may hear these citations referred to ‘internal’ citations; however, the commonly used terms are ‘in-text’ or ‘parenthetical’. Difference Between...

Using Footnotes in APA
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Generally using footnotes is associated with Chicago notes-biblio style but other styles do use them sometimes.  In APA style, use footnotes only when you absolutely must, and, ask your instructor, as well. The purpose of footnotes is to add to or clarify a point or simply to add copyright information. APA Footnotes There are two types of footnotes used in APA. 1. Content Footnotes Content...

Citing Technical and Research Reports in APA
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As you research for your school paper, you’ll likely come across sources in the form of technical and research reports. These types of reports are useful as secondary sources and to help you find primary sources but should not be relied on as the basis of your thesis. However, original qualitative and quantitative research papers are considered primary sources. Creating APA Citations It’s simple...

Citing Meeting and Symposia Proceedings in APA
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Professional, government agencies, and corporations often host conferences in which researchers can present new material and ideas to their peers. Conferences tend to be large multi-day events while a symposium is a smaller gathering, usually conducted in one day. Using Proceedings in Research Important current research is often presented at meetings and symposia, which is then published in...

Citing Six Authors or More in APA
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Many times, researchers in particular field will write papers together. At times, several authors, even eight or more, will collaborate on an extensive research paper. This can be confusing while creating your APA reference list. Creating Reference List Entries for Six Authors or More Format – Up to and including seven authors: Author, A.A., Author, B.B., Author, C.C. & Author, D.D. (2000)...

Citing Dissertations and Theses in APA
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Using doctoral dissertations and master’s theses is a useful way to bolster your research for your school paper. As post graduate students are required to do original research for their theses, these sources cover current, timely topics. Doctoral Dissertations and Master’s Theses Teachers prefer you use as many primary sources as possible. It is good to incorporate secondary sources in your...

Reviews and Peer Commentary APA Citations
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Although reviews of books, movies, video games and other published entertainment are not primary sources, they can still be helpful in your research. You can find reviews in many places, including: Magazines Newspapers Websites Blogs Even your local small-town newspaper probably publishes reviews. You may even find reviews of reviews! How to Format a Review in APA Reviewer, A.A. (2000). Title of...

Citing a Reference Book in APA
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One frequently asked question by students is how to property cite a reference book such as a dictionary or encyclopedia in APA style. Reference books are useful to supplement your research but use them as a secondary source to help you find primary sources to back up your thesis. Creating an APA Citation Creating a reference book citation follows the APA book format. Typically, there are editors...

Using Ibid in a Bibliography
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As you collect your sources and create your preliminary bibliography, you may chose to use Chicago notes-biblio style to prepare your research paper. As you’re reading through journal articles, you may notice this in the notes section: Ibid. What is Ibid? In past years, it was common to use Latin phrases and abbreviations; however, this practice fell out of style and now there is just one...

Arranging Numbers in Works Cited List
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After writing a school paper in MLA style, start formatting your works cited page. Hopefully, you’ve created a working or preliminary bibliography or works cited page as you did your research. Now you simply take your preliminary Works Cited page and start arranging it as required. One common question is whether numbers come before letters. The quick answer is ‘no’. Follow these guidelines for...

Citing the Bible in MLA Works Cited
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Although most citation styles, such as APA and Chicago/Turabian do not require including entries for the Bible in bibliographies or reference lists, MLA does require a works cited entry. Cite the bible or other religious texts using the MLA container system. Creating an MLA Entry for a Bible Source Using the nine core elements of MLA style, the first element will be the title rather than the...

Creating Anthology MLA Works Cited Entries 
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Anthologies are collections of writings published in a book or journal. The writings are centered around a similar theme, time or subject matter written by various authors. Collections of poems or short stories by the same author are also anthologies. Types of Anthologies Short stories are collected in an anthology such as this book centered around Chicano/Latino writings published in 2008. The...

Creating Hanging Indents for Your MLA Works Cited List
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As you organize your Works Cited list, you notice each entry is supposed to be formatted using hanging indents. If you’re not familiar with this term, you may feel puzzled and unsure what to do next. Hanging Indent Explained It’s really very simple. A hanging indent simply means that the second line is indented five spaces from the first line. If your works cited entry is longer than two lines...

How to Cite an Interview in MLA
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As you research your MLA paper, you may find that using interviews of prominent researchers in your field is a good source. Or you may decide to interview someone yourself. Depending on the type and manner of publication, interviews may be considered primary sources. Primary Source Interviews As you know, a primary source is one that contains original material, not an evaluation of a source. In...

How to Cite Shakespeare in MLA Works Cited
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Teachers assign essays on William Shakespeare in humanities classes frequently, using MLA citation style. Learning about Shakespeare’s works can be fun and there are quite a bit of resources available to help you research and write about them as well. Creating In-Text Citations for Works by Shakespeare While creating in-text or parenthetical citations, list: Act. Scene. Lines. Formatting:...

Citing Scholarly Journal Articles in MLA Works Cited
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Using scholarly journal articles in your MLA essay is a good way to find authoritative sources to back up your thesis statement. Journal articles fall under both primary and secondary sources, depending on the content. When you are searching for relevant articles, read the abstract first. This helps determine whether it will be a useful article for your paper. Finding Journal Articles for Your...

MLA Works Cited Magazine and Newspaper Articles
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In MLA’s latest update, MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition, a container system was developed to help students figure out how to cite sources, like articles, correctly. MLA style is used in the humanities, which includes bibliographic entries for art, music, film, movies and video. With the changing technology, it became difficult for MLA editors to keep up with the changes. Primary and Secondary...

Researching and Writing an APA Psychology Paper
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Psychology is a popular elective course. Many students are curious about the way our minds work. We often try to ‘psychoanalyze’ each other by looking at our behavior and coming up with armchair diagnosis of our teachers and fellow students. However, psychology is a broad field with many sub-fields, including clinical, cognitive and developmental psychology. Selecting Your Topic Depending on your...

Sample Bibliography for an Anthropology Essay
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If you are writing an anthropology essay on the Navajo people, you may choose to talk about housing structures. This  Chicago/Turabian author-date style Sample Bibliography provides five resources for you to start researching this subject. References Drover, Christopher E. 1985. “Navajo Settlement and Architecture in Southeastern California.” Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 7...

Creating a Bibliography for an Anthropology Essay
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Learning about cultures helps students understand how social and family bonds are formed. It helps students empathize with other cultures. Studying anthropology is a broad area and there are many topics to chose from within this subject. Generally, this subject is an elective, but you will learn many interesting things if you chose this course. What is Anthropology? Anthropology is defined as the...

How to Write a History School Paper
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You may feel overwhelmed looking at your history paper assignment. Wondering where to start? It’s easy if you plan your school project before you get started on it. First of all, review the assignment so you understand it before you start. Although your instructor will give you specific guidelines, you can adapt these steps to complete your assignment. Select Your Topic If your instructor gives...

Footnotes or Endnotes?
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If you are writing your college paper using the notes-biblio style or if your teacher asks you to include notes in your paper, you need to know the difference between footnotes and endnotes. Typically, notes are included in Chicago notes-biblio style, but you may include them in an MLA or APA citation style school project if your instructor requires them. The difference is simple: Place footnotes...

When to Use Chicago Notes
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You have your research topic ready to go and you have written your basic outline for your paper. Now what? You look at your assignment instructions and realize your instructor requires using the notes style. What does that even mean? Understanding the use of notes style is important as you begin your college writing journey. What is Notes-Biblio? Notes style or notes-biblio style is part of the...

Using Note Cards for MLA Research Papers
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In today’s digital age, it seems strange that organizing your research sources would be done on index cards. Instead of a mobile app or Google Doc, writing your sources on separate 3 X 5 index cards may still be a better way to help organize your citation sources. Although some teachers provide Word document templates that follow the same pattern, having the cards available makes it easier to...

Difference Between Five-Paragraph Essay and MLA Paper
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In high school, you’ll learn how to write a five-paragraph essay. This skill comes in handy as you learn to develop a thesis statement and organize an essay. Writing a five-paragraph essay is a part of standardized testing, which means it is a useful skill to learn. Organizing a Five-Paragraph Essay When you write a five-paragraph essay, you follow these steps: Introductory paragraph including...

Writing MLA Thesis Statements
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Writing a thesis statement for your MLA style school paper seems intimidating to high school and college students. You may have practice in understanding thesis statements when you prepared five-paragraph essays. Maybe you have even written short five page research papers in your English classes. Writing MLA College Papers However, now you are entering college and you will be writing a lot of...

Understanding APA Literature Reviews
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Teachers often assign research papers to students, especially literature reviews. Literature reviews may be part of a larger research paper or stand alone on their own. Since conducting original research and writing a paper about it takes considerable time, instructors often require students prepare papers such as compare and contrast, critical essays or literature reviews instead. What is a...

APA References, Works Cited and Bibliography Differences
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As we have learned in other articles on this site, there is a difference between the way references are cited. It all depends on what citation style your teacher asks you to use while you’re preparing your school project bibliography. Differences of Style Many people use the terms ‘works cited’, “reference list” and “bibliography” interchangeably, but there are differences. First of all, it...

Creating a School Project in APA Style
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In high school, your instructor typically asks you to write a critical essay or a short research paper on a current event or interesting person. Writing in MLA style and creating a Works Cited page for your references, works well for these papers.  However, if you take psychology or sociology classes in high school or college, you may be asked to write a paper using APA style. Understanding APA...

Developing an APA Annotated Bibliography
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APA Style uses an author-date reference list rather than a bibliography format to cite research sources. A reference list, unlike a bibliography, includes only those sources you cited within your school research paper. Each in-text citation matches a reference list entry. Starting the APA Annotated Bibliography However, your instructor may ask you to develop an annotated bibliography in APA style...

Writing APA Abstracts for a Literature Review
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While developing your APA style school research paper, follow the specific formatting guidelines to finalize your paper. This citation example focuses on writing abstracts for an APA style paper. Learning to write abstracts is a good skill as it helps you develop the ability to summarize the important points in your paper. A busy student can read abstracts to determine if it’s worth the time to...

Citing Visual and Performing Arts in Chicago Author-Date Style
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You may use MLA style to write about art in high school but there is a good chance you’ll be using Chicago/Turabian style in college. If you are writing exclusively about an artist or art history, you will probably be asked to use the Chicago notes-biblio style. The notes-biblio style is ideal for writing about music, history and art because you add notes throughout the text. This allows your...

Citing Audio and Video in Chicago Author Date Style
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While you are researching for your history paper, you will come across many multimedia sources. As primary sources such as photographs and recordings become fragile with age, libraries and other institutions are archiving these precious materials online. Many of these sources are available free through government repositories such as the Library of Congress. Universities, academic and public...

Using Journal Articles in Chicago Author Date style
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Using scholarly journal articles in your research paper is a great way to build up your authoritative sources. Scholarly journals are indexed in databases, such as EBSCO and OCLC. Although many of these academic databases are fee-based, usually your school, college or public library offers free access to students. There are also open-source scholarly journals such as San Jose State University’s...

Citing Reference Works in Chicago Author-Date Style
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You will see the term “reference work “used frequently while doing your research for your school project. But what exactly are reference works? We usually think of dictionaries and encyclopedias when we hear that term; however, other works such as indices, almanacs and catalogs fall under that category. Some reference works are even guides to other reference works. Basically, a reference work is...

Creating Chicago Author-Date Entries For Online Sources
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Creating entries in Chicago/Turabian author-date style is easier than the notes-biblio style. The notes-biblio style works well for research papers where you need to give your reader a lot of background information. However, the author-date style works better for research papers when the primary method of directing your reader to your source is by providing the name of the creator of the work and...

Creating Notes-Biblio Entries for Magazines and Newspaper Articles
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Using magazine and news articles in your school research paper shows variety in your bibliography. Articles are shorter in length and found online easily, although you may wish to visit your library in person. Bringing a full-length book to print takes time and by the time a book is published, there may be updates to the research. Journal articles are published faster; however, it does take time...

Using Journal Articles in Notes-Biblio Style
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After you finish your research for your school paper, you will notice you have several sources obtained from research journal articles. Journal articles are great sources for finding current sources. Your college offers free access to several databases, such as ProQuest or JSTOR. If you don’t have access through your school, ask the reference librarian at your local library to help you. The best...

Using Notes-Biblio Style for Books
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Citation styles, like Chicago, allow for some variations in creating entries. If you have looked at a bibliography at the end of a research article, you will see that bibliographies are created differently. It is still important that you follow the basic format and, you definitely need to use consistency in your entries.  The main purpose of creating bibliographic entries is to lead your reader...

Citing Visual & Performing Arts in Notes-Biblio
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As you research a topic for your art or history class, you may land upon a topic referring to plays, musical scores and/or art exhibition catalogs. For example, if your art history instructor asks you to choose a subject on the Italian Renaissance, you have a wide range of topics to pursue from exploring the highlights of the period to Leonardo da Vinci’s life. It is best if you pick a few ideas...

Creating Notes-Biblio Entries for Multi-Media
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Writing your research paper starts with finding your sources. When you’re writing a paper on history or the arts, it is likely you’ll be using either MLA style or Chicago/Turabian Notes-Biblio Style. Typically, articles on psychology or other social sciences will not have a lot of art sources and you will use author-date citation styles such as APA or Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style. MLA and...

Sectioning Your Bibliography in Notes-Biblio Style
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Creating a bibliography guides your readers to all the sources you have consulted or used in research. As you prepare your research paper, you look for sources that will back up your thesis statement. You may realize as you work through this process, that you need to revise your thesis or the way you present your arguments. Developing a preliminary or working bibliography allows you to gather...

MLA: Understanding the Core Elements of Works Cited
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MLA Style is designed to be flexible since it’s used in the arts and humanities. The Eighth Edition of MLA Handbook provides an easy way to create entries for different sources, such as artworks, videos and printed materials. MLA Elements There are nine elements to each entry in an MLA Works Cited list. The Eighth Edition has revised these elements so if your instructor requires to you to use the...

Using the Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style for Books
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Depending on the type of Chicago style you are using, you’ll either create a notes-biblio style bibliography or an author-date style reference list. The author-date style is used a lot in the natural and physical sciences plus social sciences. In this style, the author’s name and the date of publication are considered the best way to identify the sources you’ve used to create your paper. Using...

Creating a Chicago/Turabian Style Reference List
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If you used the author-date Chicago/Turabian style while creating your paper instead of the notes-biblio style, you will need to create a reference list rather than a bibliography. The reference list is basically the same as the bibliography; however, you’ll title the page References and you do not need to include all the sources you consulted. You do need to include all the sources that you...

MLA 7th Edition vs MLA 8th Edition
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As you start to prepare your paper in MLA Style, you realize you don’t know if you should use the seventh edition or the eighth edition of the” MLA Handbook”. You may think there’s not much difference but, in this case, a shift in creating entries for your Works Cited list took place with the publication of the eighth edition. In 2016, the Modern Language Association (MLA) decided it...