Learn and Generate Bibliographies, Citations, and Works Cited

AuthorAdrienne Mathewson

Adrienne Mathewson, Editor-in-Chief of Bibliography.com, is an Information Professional with a Master’s in Library, Information & Science from San José State University with an emphasis on information literacy and scholarly publishing. She is a certified librarian through the State of New Mexico.
APA Journal Citation Examples
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Using journal articles in your APA research paper strengths your research. There are many ways to find journal articles, including through databases, and web searches. Writing a citation format for a journal article in APA follows the basic periodical format. Remember to include the URL or DOI if you use electronic sources. Journal Articles Print Citation Format One Author Citation Format Author...

APA Book Citation Examples
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APA Book Citation Format Writing citations for your APA reference list is easy to do if you follow the basic format. Remember to use the author’s last name and then initials only for the first and middle names. Include all the necessary elements so that your reader can find the exact source you used. APA citation format follows the author-date style, which means the year of publication will...

APA Citation
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APA citation follows the author-date style of formatting in-text and reference list entries. In APA author-date style, the last name of the author and the first name initial is the first element. After that, the year of publication is added to the citation followed by the rest of the source data. A citation is the combination of the in-text citation and the full source citation in the reference...

MLA Citation
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Creating citations in MLA format is designed to be easy and flexible. Since MLA style is used in the humanities, it relies heavily on sources from art, historical records, film and video. As these sources can be found on different platforms, the MLA container system was developed to accommodate flexible citation formats. In-Text Format  Use in-text or parenthetical citations when you paraphrase...

APA Style Guide
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Although APA style is used primarily in college and post-graduate studies, it is possible that your high school instructors will ask you to use this editorial style. APA follows the author-date citation format, which makes it easy to follow sources by looking for the author and the year of publication.  Overview of APA Style APA style was developed by the American Psychological Association to...

Chicago/Turabian Citation
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The Chicago style of formatting citations was developed by the University of Chicago Press. The rules are outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS). There is a shorter, easier version of Chicago style called Turabian created for students. These rules are outlined in A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Chicago uses both the author-date citation and the notes...

Chicago/Turabian Style Guide
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The Chicago Style is used in writing research papers. Most students become aware of this editorial style in college or post graduate work. The terms Chicago and Turabian are often used interchangeably by teachers, which may cause some confusion. Turabian is a student version of Chicago style so they follow the same format.  Although it’s unlikely students will use Chicago style in middle or...

MLA Style Guide
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  As you enter middle and high school English classes, you will be asked to write papers in the MLA style. Using MLA may seem confusing at first; however, as you gain skills, you’ll realize that writing in this style actually helps you organize your paper, do research and avoid plagiarism. Understanding MLA style is the first step to a successful research writing experience. Overview...

Understanding the Basics of Chicago/Turabian Citations
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Overview of Editorial Styles Students encounter several different citation styles for formatting essays and research papers. However, even though there are editorial citation styles for every research field, students will use three primary styles: APA, MLA and Chicago/Turabian. APA Format Citation Style APA style is developed by the American Psychological Association (APA) for research in...

The Basics of MLA Format Citation Style
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Understanding Style Guides for Papers Students start writing essays in middle school English classes. Their first assignments will be short essays or a five-paragraph essay. As they progress through high school and college classes, they will learn how to research and write longer papers for different subjects. These papers are assigned by the teacher, who will ask for certain citation style such...

The Basics of APA Citation Format Style
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As students enter the research world in middle school, they start learning about new ways to research and format essays. As they progress through high school, this writing and research process becomes more complicated. One of the first things, students learn about research is the need to correctly cite the sources they use in their writing. Understanding the reasons behind using citations is the...

Making an Outline for Your School Essay in APA, MLA or Chicago
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One way teachers help students learn to write research papers and essays is by teaching them to write an outline of the paper before they start writing it. Some teachers require an outline submitted prior to approving the topic. It helps both the students and teachers find out if you’re on the right track before going further in your research process. Although your teacher will tell you what...

APA Block Quote Format
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APA style papers are written for social science fields such as psychology and behavioral sciences. As such, the material tends to be complex using high language. When you’re preparing your APA paper, you may find yourself using longer quotations from other researchers to strengthen your research argument. Using long quotations is acceptable in APA style. These style rules require that any direct...

Chicago Block Quote Format
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Adding quotations from books and plays can be an important part of your paper. Quotations strengthen your argument or add emphasis to a discussion about an author’s writing style or even the genre. Chicago Style handles block quotations the same for both author-date and notes style. You can even incorporate quotations within a note, if needed. However, most school and college essays do not...

MLA Block Quote Format
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Including quotations to your MLA school essay or research paper adds strength to it. It helps the reader understand the original sources while reinforcing your thesis. Although you don’t want to overuse long quotations in your paper, it is necessary sometimes, particularly for poems. In order to properly set the quote off from the rest of the paper, you’ll need to format it correctly. In MLA...

Writing a Letter in MLA, APA or Chicago Style
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Students often ask if they should write letters following MLA, APA or Chicago style. These editorial styles are used for research and school essay papers rather than for formal or informal business writing purposes. Difference Between Scholarly and Business Writing Writing and editorial styles are developed for different reasons. Formal writing, like business writing, follows a certain format so...

Using Numbers in MLA Style
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You’ll need to know when and how to write out numbers in your MLA style school essay. The rules are easy to follow as MLA does try to make it simple to write and organize papers in this style. Arabic or Roman Numerals Although you will use Arabic numerals for numbers that are not spelled out, you may find you use Roman numerals in certain cases. For example, the introduction in a book may be...

Citing an Introduction or Afterword in MLA
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It’s always best to cite from authoritative sources, no matter what style you’re using for your paper. To verify the information comes from a valid, authoritative source, you can check for the authenticity of the website, the author, the publisher and/or the organization that published it. Establishing Authority in Your School Paper Many times, you can tell if the source is authoritative by...

APA PowerPoint Reference List
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Your teacher may ask you to prepare your research paper and then also prepare an accompanying slideshow presentation. Just like any other research presentation, you must include proper citation of your sources on your PowerPoint or Prezi slide show presentation. APA In-Text Citations As you prepare your slideshow presentations, you’ll need to distill your research points down to clear, well...

Citing a PowerPoint Presentation in MLA
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It’s pretty common these days to have a slideshow presentation in a meeting or classroom lecture. These visuals help the listeners view graphs and follow along with the lecturer. It also makes it a little easier to take notes, or you may end up with a printout of the slides so you don’t even have to take notes. Many times, presentations are uploaded to websites for later viewing. MLA Citation...

Difference Between Thesis and Purpose Statements
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As you select your topic and plan your research, you’ll need to think about your thesis statement. Your instructor may ask you to write a thesis statement or a purpose statement. Sometimes you will have both in the same paper. No matter what type of style you use – MLA, APA or Chicago,  you’ll need to include these statements. How to Use Thesis or Purpose Statements After you select...

How to Format Your MLA Cover Page
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Formatting your MLA paper is important to the overall presentation of your paper. As part of the learning process, your teacher will require you to format your essay by following MLA rules. The cover page is critical to your overall paper as it’s the first impression your instructor and readers will see. However, in MLA, a formal cover page is not required. Formatting Rules Fortunately, it’s easy...

How to Punctuate in MLA Works Cited
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Arranging your MLA Works Cited page properly is an important part of finalizing your school research assignment. Your teacher will provide guidance as to any particular formatting issues; however, in general you should follow these rules. MLA doesn’t have a lot of fancy punctuation rules. For the most part, it’s simply using commas and periods. While creating your core elements, you will notice...

Citing PowerPoint in Chicago/Turabian Style  
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It’s common for instructors to use slide show presentations during class lectures. It’s acceptable to use lectures as a cited source; however, it’s best to use them sparingly and find peer-reviewed journal articles or books by authoritative sources to back up your research. One way to use slide show presentations is to review the bibliography for the lecture. This helps you evaluate whether...

Citing PowerPoint Presentations in APA
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Students may find useful sources prepared in slideshow format using formats such as PowerPoint or Prezi. Lectures, meeting notes and other primary sources can be found in these presentations. Just like any other source, you must cite correctly in your APA reference list. PowerPoint Slideshow Citation While citing lectures, meeting notes or other slideshow presentations, follow the standard APA...

Et al. and Other Latin Abbreviations
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Although we see abbreviated Latin words in articles, it can still be confusing as sometimes the way people use them is incorrect. Many Latin abbreviations have fallen out of common use, but still used in scholarly writing – ibid., etc., and i.e. are frequently used in text and reference citations. Definition of et al. Et al. means “and others” in Latin. Actually, it’s an abbreviation for...

Using Footnotes and Endnotes in the Same Essay
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Sometimes you may notice a book or journal article that has both footnotes and endnotes. Typically, a school paper will not include both; however, if you are writing a research paper that has several notes that are dense (substantive notes), you may want these as footnotes and then put your source citations in your bibliography. Difference between Substantive and Citation Source Notes Substantive...

Citing Sources for Your Science Fair Project
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Citing your sources for a science fair project is done the same way as any other research paper. Your teacher will provide rubrics for the assignment and let you know what citation style you should use to format your entries. Usually, in middle and high school, students are asked to use MLA citation style, even for science projects. MLA style is easy to use with the new revised style of using...

Creating an Endnote in a Research Paper
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Endnotes and footnotes are used in Chicago notes-biblio style. An endnote and a footnote are the same thing – notes placed either at the bottom of the page or at the end of the paper, book, or chapter. These notes are short additions, clarifications or copyright information. They are placed outside of the text to provide the reader with a better reading experience. Using Notes One way for...

Difference Between a Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography
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As students enter the research writing world, they have to learn a whole new language about theses, bibliographies, secondary sources, primary sources and other new terms. Some areas that students find confusing are the differences among abstracts, annotated bibliographic entries and literature reviews. The confusion is understandable as there are many similarities in these aspects of report...

Listing Multiple Works by the Same Author in APA References
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As you conduct research on a particular topic, you will notice you come across the same authors who publish frequently. That is because researchers tend to focus on a particular area and continue to publish in it. It’s important you check publication dates to make sure you are aware of the most current research. Collaborating Authors Because there are a limited number of researchers in a...

How to Cite a Website with No Author in APA
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When you come across a relevant article published on a website, you may want to include that as a source for your APA paper. Unfortunately, many times online articles may not have an author byline. In that case, you will need to use the title of the article in place of the author’s name. Although, it is acceptable to include information from sources with no author listed, make sure it is, at...

Arranging Your APA Reference List
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Arranging your APA Reference list in the proper format is an important part of completing your research paper. As you prepare and write your paper, you should be compiling a preliminary reference list or bibliography that contains all the information you need for your citations. Make sure all your citations are accurate and lead your reader directly to the same source you used for your paper...

Abstracts and Annotated Bibliographies
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Sometimes students are assigned to write an annotated bibliography as a standalone assignment. This is a good exercise to learn about researching and evaluating sources. Some students may wonder if an abstract is the same as an annotated bibliography entry. Others may wonder if they need to include an abstract with the annotated bibliography. Although on the surface, the two appear similar, each...

Chicago Annotated Bibliography Entries
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Bibliographies are an important part of a Chicago style research paper. At the end of your paper, you are required to include a bibliography of the sources you consulted. Unlike a works cited or reference list, you include all the works you consulted for research, not just the ones you cited in your paper. What is an Annotated Bibliography An annotated bibliography is a list of relevant sources...

Understanding Primary and Secondary Sources
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No matter what editorial style you use for your school essay, APA, Chicago, or MLA, you will need to understand the difference between primary and secondary sources. Most papers include a combination of primary and secondary sources. It’s important to learn how to evaluate sources so that you are using material and data prepared by authoritative sources. Examples of Primary Sources Primary...

In-Text and Parenthetical Citations
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As you start researching and writing your school paper, you’ll notice discussion about in-text and parenthetical citations. You may wonder if these are two different things and are confused about how to use these. You may hear these citations referred to ‘internal’ citations; however, the commonly used terms are ‘in-text’ or ‘parenthetical’. Difference Between...

Using Footnotes in APA
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Generally using footnotes is associated with Chicago notes-biblio style but other styles do use them sometimes.  In APA style, use footnotes only when you absolutely must, and, ask your instructor, as well. The purpose of footnotes is to add to or clarify a point or simply to add copyright information. APA Footnotes There are two types of footnotes used in APA. 1. Content Footnotes Content...

Writing a Literature Review for a College Paper
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When you write an APA research paper, you will follow the introduction with a brief recap of the previous literature on your topic. This literature review helps guide your reader through your research process and backs up your research strategy and thesis. Literature Review Section A Literature review can be a research paper on its own. The author will critically evaluate published material on a...

Copyright and Fair Use for Students
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Copyright law allows for fair use for students of copyrighted permissions under certain conditions. It’s important to understand how copyright law affects you as it’s a serious business. Publishers and companies spend a lot of money and legal time to protect their copyrights, trademarks and patents. With so much information available online, it’s easy to think it’s all open for your use, but that...

Evaluating Sources for Your School Essay
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One of the most important part of researching your school paper topic, is making sure you are using good sources for your research. There is so much information available online that it can be overwhelming at first. However, if you follow these tips, you will learn to recognize authoritative sources quickly. What is a Source? Let’s start at the beginning here. First of all, you’ll need to...

Citing Technical and Research Reports in APA
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As you research for your school paper, you’ll likely come across sources in the form of technical and research reports. These types of reports are useful as secondary sources and to help you find primary sources but should not be relied on as the basis of your thesis. However, original qualitative and quantitative research papers are considered primary sources. Creating APA Citations It’s simple...

Citing Meeting and Symposia Proceedings in APA
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Professional, government agencies, and corporations often host conferences in which researchers can present new material and ideas to their peers. Conferences tend to be large multi-day events while a symposium is a smaller gathering, usually conducted in one day. Using Proceedings in Research Important current research is often presented at meetings and symposia, which is then published in...

Citing Six Authors or More in APA
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Many times, researchers in particular field will write papers together. At times, several authors, even eight or more, will collaborate on an extensive research paper. This can be confusing while creating your APA reference list. Creating Reference List Entries for Six Authors or More Format – Up to and including seven authors: Author, A.A., Author, B.B., Author, C.C. & Author, D.D. (2000)...

Citing Dissertations and Theses in APA
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Using doctoral dissertations and master’s theses is a useful way to bolster your research for your school paper. As post graduate students are required to do original research for their theses, these sources cover current, timely topics. Doctoral Dissertations and Master’s Theses Teachers prefer you use as many primary sources as possible. It is good to incorporate secondary sources in your...

Reviews and Peer Commentary APA Citations
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Although reviews of books, movies, video games and other published entertainment are not primary sources, they can still be helpful in your research. You can find reviews in many places, including: Magazines Newspapers Websites Blogs Even your local small-town newspaper probably publishes reviews. You may even find reviews of reviews! How to Format a Review in APA Reviewer, A.A. (2000). Title of...

Citing a Reference Book in APA
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One frequently asked question by students is how to properly cite a reference book such as a dictionary or encyclopedia in APA style. Reference books are useful to supplement your research but use them as a secondary source to help you find primary sources to back up your thesis. Creating an APA Citation Creating a reference book citation follows the APA book format. Typically, there are editors...

Using Ibid in a Bibliography
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As you collect your sources and create your preliminary bibliography, you may chose to use Chicago notes-biblio style to prepare your research paper. As you’re reading through journal articles, you may notice this term in the notes section: Ibid. What is Ibid? In past years, it was common to use Latin phrases and abbreviations; however, this practice fell out of style and now there is just one...

Citing the Bible in Chicago
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Most citation styles do not require a bibliographic entry for citing sources such as the Bible and other scared works, including Chicago  author-date or notes-biblio style. However, you do need to create an in-text or parenthetical citation in your paper. Creating Biblical Citations While creating biblical citations, include the abbreviated name of the book, the chapter number, and the verse...

Arranging Numbers in Works Cited List
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After writing a school paper in MLA style, start formatting your works cited page. Hopefully, you’ve created a working or preliminary bibliography or works cited page as you did your research. Now you simply take your preliminary Works Cited page and start arranging it as required. One common question is whether numbers come before letters. The quick answer is ‘no’. Follow these guidelines for...