Learn and Generate Bibliographies, Citations, and Works Cited

CategoryChicago/Turabian Format

Chicago Format Style covers citation format for history, physical, natural and social sciences. It is published by the University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS), 17th edition is over a thousand pages, including its bibliography. Fortunately, there is a shorter, student version of CMOS available. This student version is often called Turabian style after the author of A Manual for Writers, Kate L. Turabian.

Chicago or CMOS consists of two different styles. One style is an author-date style, which is simple to use. The author-date style is used in physical, natural and social sciences. Students will use the author-date style for school projects, in most cases.

The second style is notes-biblio style. Notes-biblio is an extensive notes bibliographic style. Notes can be formatted as endnotes or footnotes.  Chicago/Turabian is used for history, literature and the arts. Note numbers are placed within the text, then information about the source is placed at the end of the chapter or at the bottom of the page. Each note is cited within a bibliography at the end of the paper.

Source

The Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition text © 2017 by The University of Chicago.

Chicago/Turabian Citation
C

The Chicago style of formatting citations was developed by the University of Chicago Press. The rules are outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS). There is a shorter, easier version of Chicago style called Turabian created for students. These rules are outlined in A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Chicago uses both the author-date citation and the notes...

Chicago/Turabian Style Guide
C

The Chicago Style is used in writing research papers. Most students become aware of this editorial style in college or post graduate work. The terms Chicago and Turabian are often used interchangeably by teachers, which may cause some confusion. Turabian is a student version of Chicago style so they follow the same format.  Although it’s unlikely students will use Chicago style in middle or...

Understanding the Basics of Chicago/Turabian Citations
U

Overview of Editorial Styles Students encounter several different citation styles for formatting essays and research papers. However, even though there are editorial citation styles for every research field, students will use three primary styles: APA, MLA and Chicago/Turabian. APA Format Citation Style APA style is developed by the American Psychological Association (APA) for research in...

Chicago Block Quote Format
C

Adding quotations from books and plays can be an important part of your paper. Quotations strengthen your argument or add emphasis to a discussion about an author’s writing style or even the genre. Chicago Style handles block quotations the same for both author-date and notes style. You can even incorporate quotations within a note, if needed. However, most school and college essays do not...

Citing PowerPoint in Chicago/Turabian Style  
C

It’s common for instructors to use slide show presentations during class lectures. It’s acceptable to use lectures as a cited source; however, it’s best to use them sparingly and find peer-reviewed journal articles or books by authoritative sources to back up your research. One way to use slide show presentations is to review the bibliography for the lecture. This helps you evaluate whether...

Using Footnotes and Endnotes in the Same Essay
U

Sometimes you may notice a book or journal article that has both footnotes and endnotes. Typically, a school paper will not include both; however, if you are writing a research paper that has several notes that are dense (substantive notes), you may want these as footnotes and then put your source citations in your bibliography. Difference between Substantive and Citation Source Notes Substantive...

Chicago Annotated Bibliography Entries
C

Bibliographies are an important part of a Chicago style research paper. At the end of your paper, you are required to include a bibliography of the sources you consulted. Unlike a works cited or reference list, you include all the works you consulted for research, not just the ones you cited in your paper. What is an Annotated Bibliography An annotated bibliography is a list of relevant sources...

Using Ibid in a Bibliography
U

As you collect your sources and create your preliminary bibliography, you may chose to use Chicago notes-biblio style to prepare your research paper. As you’re reading through journal articles, you may notice this term in the notes section: Ibid. What is Ibid? In past years, it was common to use Latin phrases and abbreviations; however, this practice fell out of style and now there is just one...

Citing the Bible in Chicago
C

Most citation styles do not require a bibliographic entry for citing sources such as the Bible and other scared works, including Chicago  author-date or notes-biblio style. However, you do need to create an in-text or parenthetical citation in your paper. Creating Biblical Citations While creating biblical citations, include the abbreviated name of the book, the chapter number, and the verse...

Sample Bibliography for an Anthropology Essay
S

If you are writing an anthropology essay on the Navajo people, you may choose to talk about housing structures. This  Chicago/Turabian author-date style Sample Bibliography provides five resources for you to start researching this subject. References Drover, Christopher E. 1985. “Navajo Settlement and Architecture in Southeastern California.” Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 7...

Creating a Bibliography for an Anthropology Essay
C

Learning about cultures helps students understand how social and family bonds are formed. It helps students empathize with other cultures. Studying anthropology is a broad area and there are many topics to chose from within this subject. Generally, this subject is an elective, but you will learn many interesting things if you chose this course. What is Anthropology? Anthropology is defined as the...

Preparing a Chicago Author-Date Essay Outline
P

One of the first steps to writing a college or high school essay or research paper is creating an outline. Outline Format Roman Numeral Capital Letter Number Example I. Introduction II. First idea A. Explanation 1. Methodology 2. Literature Review III. Second idea A. Overview of Research 1.Study 1 2. Study 2 III. Conclusion Why Create an Essay Outline Part of your assignment Your teacher may...

How to Write a History School Paper in Chicago Style
H

You may feel overwhelmed looking at your history paper assignment. Wondering where to start? It’s easy if you plan your school project before you get started on it. First of all, review the assignment so you understand it before you start. Although your instructor will give you specific guidelines, you can adapt these steps to complete your assignment. Select Your Topic If your instructor gives...

When to Use Chicago Notes
W

You have your research topic ready to go and you have written your basic outline for your paper. Now what? You look at your assignment instructions and realize your instructor requires using the notes style. What does that even mean? Understanding the use of notes style is important as you begin your college writing journey. What is Notes-Biblio? Notes style or notes-biblio style is part of the...

Citing Visual and Performing Arts in Chicago Author-Date Style
C

You may use MLA style to write about art in high school but there is a good chance you’ll be using Chicago/Turabian style in college. If you are writing exclusively about an artist or art history, you will probably be asked to use the Chicago notes-biblio style. The notes-biblio style is ideal for writing about music, history and art because you add notes throughout the text. This allows your...

Citing Audio and Video in Chicago Author Date Style
C

While you are researching for your history paper, you will come across many multimedia sources. As primary sources such as photographs and recordings become fragile with age, libraries and other institutions are archiving these precious materials online. Many of these sources are available free through government repositories such as the Library of Congress. Universities, academic and public...

Using Journal Articles in Chicago Author Date Style
U

Using scholarly journal articles in your research paper is a great way to build up your authoritative sources. Scholarly journals are indexed in databases, such as EBSCO and OCLC. Although many of these academic databases are fee-based, usually your school, college or public library offers free access to students. There are also open-source scholarly journals such as San Jose State University’s...

Citing Reference Works in Chicago Author-Date Style
C

You will see the term “reference work “used frequently while doing your research for your school project. But what exactly are reference works? We usually think of dictionaries and encyclopedias when we hear that term; however, other works such as indices, almanacs and catalogs fall under that category. Some reference works are even guides to other reference works. Basically, a reference work is...

Creating Chicago Author-Date Entries For Online Sources
C

Creating entries in Chicago/Turabian author-date style is easier than the notes-biblio style. The notes-biblio style works well for research papers where you need to give your reader a lot of background information. However, the author-date style works better for research papers when the primary method of directing your reader to your source is by providing the name of the creator of the work and...

Creating Notes-Biblio Entries for Magazines and Newspaper Articles
C

Using magazine and news articles in your school research paper shows variety in your bibliography. Articles are shorter in length and found online easily, although you may wish to visit your library in person. Bringing a full-length book to print takes time and by the time a book is published, there may be updates to the research. Journal articles are published faster; however, it does take time...

Using Journal Articles in Notes-Biblio Style
U

After you finish your research for your school paper, you will notice you have several sources obtained from research journal articles. Journal articles are great sources for finding current sources. Your college offers free access to several databases, such as ProQuest or JSTOR. If you don’t have access through your school, ask the reference librarian at your local library to help you. The best...

Using Chicago Notes-Biblio Style for Books
U

Citation styles, like Chicago, allow for some variations in creating entries. If you have looked at a bibliography at the end of a research article, you will see that bibliographies are created differently. It is still important that you follow the basic format and, you definitely need to use consistency in your entries.  The main purpose of creating bibliographic entries is to lead your reader...

Creating a Bibliography in the Notes-Biblio Chicago Style
C

Even though the notes (either footnotes or endnotes) section throughout your paper gives a lot of detail about your sources, you will still need to create a list of your bibliographical entries. There are some exceptions, usually depending on what the publisher or your instructor has in mind. Creating a Citation When you use the notes-biblio style, it’s important that you have a corresponding...

Citing Visual & Performing Arts in Notes-Biblio
C

As you research a topic for your art or history class, you may land upon a topic referring to plays, musical scores and/or art exhibition catalogs. For example, if your art history instructor asks you to choose a subject on the Italian Renaissance, you have a wide range of topics to pursue from exploring the highlights of the period to Leonardo da Vinci’s life. It is best if you pick a few ideas...

Creating Notes-Biblio Entries for Multimedia
C

Writing your research paper starts with finding your sources. When you’re writing a paper on history or the arts, it is likely you’ll be using either MLA style or Chicago/Turabian notes-bibliography style. Typically, articles on psychology or other social sciences will not have a lot of art sources and you will use author-date citation styles such as APA or Chicago/Turabian author-date style. MLA...

Citing Reference Works in Notes-Biblio Style
C

As you gather your sources for your school research paper, you may consult reference works such as dictionaries, textbooks or encyclopedias. Reference works can be important to your paper; however, they are secondary rather than primary sources and supplement your primary research, not replace it. Depending on the subject of your paper, you may use more secondary sources than usual and will want...

Creating Notes Biblio Entries for Online Sources
C

As you develop your research paper in the Chicago notes-biblio style, try to use print sources as well as online sources. You may find material originally created in the print form, particularly scholarly journal articles, published in databases such as ProQuest. Generally, online databases require a paid subscription, but your school, college or public library provides access to most sources...

Sectioning Your Bibliography in Notes-Biblio Style
S

Creating a bibliography guides your readers to all the sources you have consulted or used in your research. As you prepare your research paper, you look for sources that will back up your thesis statement. You may realize as you work through this process, though, that you need to revise your thesis or the way you present your arguments. Developing a preliminary or working bibliography allows you...

Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Citation Elements
C

As you’re researching your sources for your Chicago/Turabian author-date styled research paper, prepare for your reference list by thinking ahead. It’s overwhelming when you’re faced with the daunting research needed for your paper. You can make your life easier by creating a preliminary or working bibliography of all your sources. Information to Include in Citations As you gather...

Entries to Include in Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style
E

As you gather your sources for your school research paper, you must remember to include every piece of information. While preparing your Chicago author-date reference list, you want to make sure to give credit where credit is due. This is a cornerstone of research for several reasons. Not only do you have to give credit to the original creator, but you need to direct your reader to your sources...

Using the Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style for Books
U

Depending on the type of Chicago style you are using, you’ll either create a notes-biblio style bibliography or an author-date style reference list. The author-date style is used a lot in the natural and physical sciences plus social sciences. In this style, the author’s name and the date of publication are considered the best way to identify the sources you’ve used to create your paper. Using...

Understanding Chicago Notes-Biblio Style vs. Author-Date Style
U

Even though the notes-biblio and author-date styles both come from the Chicago/Turabian style guide, there are critical differences between the two styles. Once you’ve selected the style you want to use, follow the format carefully. Both the in-text citation and its corresponding bibliographic entry are formatted differently. Understanding Notes-Biblio Style Because the notes-biblio style allows...

Creating a Chicago/Turabian Style Reference List
C

If you used the author-date Chicago/Turabian style while creating your paper instead of the notes-biblio style, you will need to create a reference list rather than a bibliography. The reference list is basically the same as the bibliography; however, you title the page References and you do not need to include all the sources you consulted. You do need to include all the sources that you cited...

Using 3- em Dash in Chicago/Turabian
U

While developing your Chicago/Turabian style bibliography or reference list, you may use the 3-em dash method for multiple works by the same author. In the author-date style you will use the publication date to organize your  entries by the same author (or editor, translator).  If you are using the notes-biblio style, you will organize your entries by the title of the work. Creating a 3-em Dash A...

Standard Chicago/Turabian Bibliography Template
S

Creating a paper is a lot of work. However, before you can turn in your essay or report, you need to create a bibliography. The bibliography will list all the sources that you used in the creation of your work. Bibliographies are typically found in Chicago, Turabian and Harvard writing styles. Knowing Your Style Different styles use different citation pages. Chicago, Turabian and Harvard can use...

Turabian Style Citations and Bibliography
T

Your professor has told you to write your paper in Turabian style, but you’re clueless. You keep seeing this style and Chicago combined. Now you are really confused. Find your answers to what Turabian is and how it’s created. What Is Turabian Style? Turabian is a style covered under the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS). The difference in these styles is who they are created for...