Learn and Generate Bibliographies, Citations, and Works Cited

CategoryChicago/Turabian Format

Chicago Format Style covers citation format for history, physical, natural and social sciences. It is published by the University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS), 17th edition is over a thousand pages, including its bibliography. Fortunately, there is a shorter, student version of CMOS available. This student version is often called Turabian style after the author of A Manual for Writers, Kate L. Turabian.

Chicago or CMOS consists of two different styles. One style is an author-date style, which is simple to use. The author-date style is used in physical, natural and social sciences. Students will use the author-date style for school projects, in most cases.

The second style is notes-biblio style. Notes-biblio is an extensive notes bibliographic style. Notes can be formatted as endnotes or footnotes.  Chicago/Turabian is used for history, literature and the arts. Note numbers are placed within the text, then information about the source is placed at the end of the chapter or at the bottom of the page. Each note is cited within a bibliography at the end of the paper.

Source

The Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition text © 2017 by The University of Chicago.

Chicago Style Citations and Format
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Writing your first academic paper in Chicago 17 format can be a real nail biter. Not only is the official manual massive, but it can be difficult to know which Chicago style citations to use. Breeze through your essay by breaking down the Chicago and Turabian style format into digestible chunks with a straightforward and comprehensive guide. Should You Use Chicago Style? College writing is never...

How to Do a Chicago Style Bibliography
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Chicago style guidelines require either a full bibliography of all the works consulted during your research or a reference list of sources cited specifically in your paper. Turabian is a student version of Chicago style. Two Citation Styles Chicago style comes in two citation styles: author-date and notes-bibliography With author-date, you list all cited sources. By comparison, with notes...

Chicago/Turabian Citation Styles Explained
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The Chicago style of formatting citations was developed by the University of Chicago Press. The rules are outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) 17th edition. There is also a shorter, easier version of Chicago style for students called Turabian. These rules are outlined in A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Chicago style citations consist of the author...

Simple Chicago/Turabian Style Guide
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Chicago 17 style is used in writing research papers. Most students learn about this editorial style in college or post-graduate work. The terms Chicago and Turabian are often used interchangeably by teachers, which may cause some confusion. Turabian is a student version of Chicago style format; they follow the same format. Although it’s unlikely middle or high school students will use...

Chicago/Turabian Citation Basics
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Students encounter several different citation styles for formatting essays and research papers. However, even though there are editorial citation styles for every research field, students will primarily use three styles: APA, MLA and Chicago/Turabian. Chicago/Turabian Format Published by the University of Chicago Press, Chicago 17 style is the most extensive of the three citation styles. The...

Chicago Block Quote Format With Examples
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Adding quotations from books and plays can be an important part of your paper. Quotations strengthen your argument or add emphasis to a discussion about an author’s writing style or genre. The Chicago 17 style block quote format is the same for both author-date and notes style. You can even incorporate quotations within a note, if needed. However, most school and college essays do not require...

Citing PowerPoint in Chicago/Turabian Style  
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It’s common for instructors to use slideshow presentations during class lectures. It’s acceptable to use lectures as a cited source. However, it’s best to use them sparingly. Instead, find peer-reviewed journal articles or books by authoritative sources to back up your research. One way to use PowerPoint slideshow presentations in your Chicago 17 style paper is to review the bibliography for the...

Using Footnotes and Endnotes in the Same Essay
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Sometimes you may notice a book or journal article with both footnotes and endnotes. Typically, a Chicago 17 school paper will not include both; however, if you are writing a research paper that has several notes that are dense (substantive notes), you may want these as footnotes, and then you can put your source citations in your bibliography. Difference Between Substantive and Citation Source...

Chicago Annotated Bibliography Format and Example
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Bibliographies are an important part of a Chicago 17 style research paper. At the end of your paper, you are required to include a bibliography of the sources you consulted. Unlike a works cited or reference list, you include all the works you consulted for research, not just the ones you cited in your paper. What Is an Annotated Bibliography? An annotated bibliography is a list of relevant...

Using Ibid in a Chicago Style Bibliography
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As you collect your sources and create your preliminary bibliography, you may choose to use Chicago notes-biblio style to prepare your research paper. As you’re reading through journal articles, you may notice the term “ibid.” in the notes section. It’s important to know how and when to use ibid. correctly in your bibliography. What is Ibid? In past years, it was common to use...

How to Cite the Bible in a Chicago Style Bibliography
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Most citation styles do not require a bibliographic entry to cite the Bible and other scared works. This includes Chicago author-date or notes-biblio style. However, you do need to create an in-text or parenthetical citation in your paper when referencing the Bible. Creating Biblical Citations While creating biblical citations, include the abbreviated name of the book, the chapter number, and the...

Sample Bibliography for an Anthropology Essay
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If you are writing an anthropology essay on the Navajo people, you may choose to talk about housing structures. This 17th edition of the Chicago/Turabian author-date style sample bibliography provides five resources for you to start researching this subject. Bibliography Example Format As you review this bibliography example for an anthropology paper, you’ll notice that it references a...

Writing and Bibliography Tips for an Anthropology Paper
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Learning about different cultures helps students understand how social and family bonds are formed. For example, it helps students empathize with other cultures. Studying anthropology is a broad area, so there are many topics to choose from for your anthropology paper. Generally, this subject is an elective, but you will learn many interesting things if you choose this course. What Is...

Proper Chicago Outline Format for an Essay
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One of the first steps to writing a college or high school essay or research paper in Chicago 17 style is creating an outline. An essay outline not only helps you organize your thoughts and sources, but it actually helps with writing the paper itself. But first, you must familiarize yourself with how to format an outline properly. Chicago Style Outline Format An essay outline in Chicago style...

How to Write a History School Paper in Chicago Style
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You may feel overwhelmed looking at your history paper assignment, especially the requirement for Chicago 17 style citations. It’s easy to know where to start if you plan your school project first. Before you even begin writing, review the assignment carefully to ensure you understand it. Although your instructor should give you specific guidelines, you can adapt these steps to complete your...

When to Use the Chicago Notes-Bibliography Style
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You have your research topic ready to go and you have written your basic outline for your paper. Now what? You look at your assignment instructions and realize your instructor requires you to use Chicago 17 notes style. What does that even mean? Understanding the use of Chicago notes-biblio style is important as you begin your college writing journey. What Is Chicago Notes-Biblio? Notes style or...

Citing Visual and Performing Arts in Chicago Author-Date Style
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You may use MLA style to write about art in high school, but there is a good chance you’ll be using Chicago/Turabian 17 style in college. If you are writing exclusively about an artist or art history, you will probably be asked to use the Chicago notes-biblio style. The notes-biblio style is ideal for writing about music, history and art, because you add notes throughout the text. Chicago author...

Citing YouTube Videos, Movies, and Audio in Chicago Author-Date
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Using multimedia sources in your research paper, whether it’s on history, philosophy or any other subject, adds variety to print sources. They also provide readers with an interesting look at the past by hearing or seeing historical figures. For example, this recording of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s fireside chat is accessed through a YouTube hosted video. Citing videos like these in...

Journal Article Citations in the Chicago Author-Date Style
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Using scholarly journal articles in your Chicago 17 author-date research paper is a great way to build up your authoritative sources. Scholarly journals are indexed in databases, such as EBSCO and OCLC. Although many of these academic databases are fee-based, your school, college or public library usually offers free access to students. There are also open-source scholarly journals such as San...

Citing Reference Works in Chicago Author-Date Style
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You will see the term “reference work“ frequently while doing research for your school project. But, what exactly are reference works? We usually think of dictionaries and encyclopedias when we hear that term; however, other works such as indices, almanacs and catalogs fall under that category as well. Some reference works are even guides to other reference works. Basically, a reference work is a...

Chicago Author-Date Citations for Websites and Social Media
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Creating entries in Chicago 17 author-date style is easier than the notes-biblio style, including for websites and other online sources. The notes-biblio style works well for research papers where you need to give your reader a lot of background information. However, the author-date style works better for research papers when you simply want to direct the reader to the source by providing the...

Creating Notes-Biblio Entries for Magazines and Newspaper Articles
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Using magazine and news articles in your Chicago 17 style school research paper adds variety to your bibliography. You can easily find these types of articles online, making them great candidates for your notes-biblio style paper. Bringing a full-length book to print takes time. The peer review and publishing process can delay journal articles, too. By contrast, magazines are usually published at...

How to Cite Journal Articles in the Chicago Notes-Biblio Style
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After you finish your research for your Chicago 17 notes-biblio style school paper, you will notice you have several research journal articles as sources. Journal articles are great for finding current information. Your college offers free access to several databases, such as ProQuest or JSTOR. If you don’t have access through your school, ask the reference librarian at your local library to help...

How to Use Chicago Notes-Biblio Style Citations for Books
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Citation styles, like Chicago 17 notes-biblio, allow for some variation in creating entries for books. You may have noticed that some authors create bibliographies differently for their research articles. Even so, it is still important that you follow the basic format, and you definitely need to be consistent in your entries.  The main purpose of creating bibliographic entries is to lead your...

Create a Bibliography in the Notes-Biblio Chicago Style
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Even though the notes (either footnotes or endnotes) section throughout your paper gives a lot of detail about your sources, you will still need to create a list of your bibliographical entries. There are some exceptions, though, usually depending on what the publisher or your instructor has in mind. The bibliography is the second major component of what makes up the Chicago 17 notes-biblio...

Citing Visual & Performing Arts in Notes-Biblio
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As you research a topic for your art or history class, you may land upon a topic referring to plays, musical scores and/or art exhibition catalogs. You may need to cite performing arts sources for your Chicago 17 notes-biblio style paper, as a result. For example, if your art history instructor asks you to choose a subject on the Italian Renaissance, you have a wide range of topics to pursue from...

How to Cite a Movie, Podcast, or Video in Notes-Biblio Style
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Writing your research paper starts with finding your sources. When you’re writing a paper on history or the arts, it is likely you’ll be using either MLA style or Chicago/Turabian 17 notes-bibliography style. Typically, articles on psychology or other social sciences will not have a lot of art sources and you will use author-date citation styles such as APA or Chicago/Turabian author-date style...

Citing Reference Works in Notes-Biblio Style
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As you gather your sources for your school research paper, you may consult reference works such as dictionaries, textbooks or encyclopedias. Reference works can be important to your Chicago 17 notes-biblio style paper; however, they are secondary rather than primary sources and supplement your primary research, not replace it. Depending on the subject of your paper, you may use more secondary...

Creating Notes-Biblio Entries for Online Sources
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As you develop your research paper in the Chicago 17 notes-biblio style, try to use print sources as well as online sources. You may find material originally created in the print form, particularly scholarly journal articles, published in databases such as ProQuest. Generally, online databases require a paid subscription, but your school, college or public library provides access to most sources...

Sectioning a Chicago Notes-Biblio Style Bibliography
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Creating a bibliography guides your readers to all the sources you have consulted or used in your research. As you prepare your research paper, you look for sources that will back up your thesis statement. You may realize as you work through this process, though, that you need to revise your thesis or the way you present your arguments. Developing a preliminary or working bibliography allows you...

Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Citation Elements
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As you’re researching your sources for your Chicago/Turabian 17 author-date paper, start to gather the citation elements you need to prepare for your reference list. It can be overwhelming when you’re faced with the daunting research needed for your paper. You can make your life easier by creating a preliminary or working bibliography of all your sources as you go along. Information to...

Entries to Include in Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style
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As you gather your sources for your school research paper, you must remember to include every piece of information. While preparing your Chicago 17 author-date style reference list, you want to make sure you give credit where credit is due. This is a cornerstone of research for several reasons. Not only do you have to give credit to the original creator, but you need to direct your reader to your...

Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style Citations for Books
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Depending on the type of Chicago 17 style you are using, you’ll either create a notes-biblio style bibliography or an author-date style reference list. The author-date style is used a lot in the natural and physical sciences plus social sciences. Citations for books in the author-date style emphasize the author’s name and the date of publication. That’s because they’re...

Chicago Notes-Biblio Style vs. Author-Date Style
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Even though the notes-biblio and author-date styles both come from the Chicago/Turabian 17 style guide, there are critical differences between the two formats. Once you’ve selected the style you want to use, follow the format carefully. Both the in-text citation and its corresponding bibliographic entry are formatted differently. Understanding Chicago Notes-Biblio Style Because the notes-biblio...

Creating a Chicago/Turabian Style Reference Page
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If you used the author-date Chicago/Turabian style while creating your paper instead of the notes-biblio style, you will need to create a reference list rather than a bibliography. The reference list is basically the same as the bibliography; however, you title the page References and you do not need to include all the sources you consulted. You do need to include all the sources that you cited...

How to Make and Use 3-em Dash in Chicago Style
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While developing your Chicago/Turabian style bibliography or reference list, you may use the 3-em dash method for multiple works by the same author. In the author-date style, you will use the publication date to organize your entries by the same author (or editor or translator). If you are using the notes-biblio style, you will organize your entries by the title of the work. Creating a 3-em Dash...

Standard Chicago/Turabian Bibliography Template
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Creating a Chicago 17 style paper is a lot of work. However, before you can turn in your essay or report, you need to create a bibliography. The bibliography will list all the sources that you used in the creation of your work. If you follow a basic Chicago style format bibliography template, you’ll be sure to include all the right elements. Knowing Your Style Different styles use different...

Turabian Style Citations and Bibliography
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Your professor has told you to write your paper in Turabian style, but you’re clueless. You keep seeing this style and Chicago 17 combined. Now you are really confused. Find your answers to what Turabian is and how it’s created. What Is Turabian Style? Turabian is a style covered under the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS). The difference in these styles is who they are created for...