Learn and Generate Bibliographies, Citations, and Works Cited

Creating an Endnote in a Research Paper


Endnotes and footnotes are used in Chicago notes-biblio style. An endnote and a footnote are the same thing – notes placed either at the bottom of the page or at the end of the paper, book, or chapter. These notes are short additions, clarifications or copyright information. They are placed outside of the text to provide the reader with a better reading experience.

Students Creating an Endnote

Using Notes

One way for students to use notes in their research process, is to read through the text, then go back and with a second reading, examine the notes for further information. It’s a good way to find authoritative sources for your own research. You may copy any useful sources into a preliminary bibliography or write them down on your note cards.

Other styles, such as MLA may use endnotes; however, you will probably not use this method too much in your school paper, particularly in high school.

The preferred APA style is to not include notes but if you have to do so, follow these guidelines:

  • Content notes provide supplemental information that doesn’t fit in the text but is supplemental.
  • Copyright permissions footnotes are designed for information that we need permission to reprint or exceeds 400 words, especially in published works.

Formatting Notes

Notes within the text are indicated by a superscript number, such as 1. The corresponding notes entry is also noted with that same number.

In some cases, authors will simply include notes with enough information so that a bibliography is not needed. You’ll see this many times in historical books. This notes are called citation source notes. You may see texts with both footnotes and endnotes as well.



Many students feel that learning about cultural and diversity1 is an important part of their college education.


Endnote (Footnote)

1 Mark Lessing, “Diversity in College Increases,” Education Today 5, no. 2 (Spring 2018): 12, https://doi.org/xx.xxxxx. Qualitative data show that 15 out of 20 students surveyed expressed a desire to learn more about cultural issue.


Corresponding Bibliography Entry

Lessing, Mark. “Diversity in College Increases”, Education Today (Spring 2018): 10-14. https://doi.org/xx.xxxxx.


Note: add https://doi.org to the DOI.

Typically, endnote sources are cited in a bibliography as well, but some material simply includes notes and no bibliography. As a student, you will probably be expected to provide both endnotes and a corresponding bibliographic entry. Make sure the in-text number matches the notes entry number so the reader can find the correct source.

Related Articles

Using Footnotes in APA

In-Text and Parenthetical Citations

About the author

Adrienne Mathewson

Adrienne Mathewson, Editor-in-Chief of Bibliography.com, is an Information Professional with a Master’s in Library, Information & Science from San José State University with an emphasis on information literacy and scholarly publishing. She is a certified librarian through the State of New Mexico.

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