As you collect your sources and create your preliminary bibliography, you may chose to use Chicago notes-biblio style to prepare your research paper. As you’re reading through journal articles, you may notice this in the notes section: Ibid.
What is Ibid?
In past years, it was common to use Latin phrases and abbreviations; however, this practice fell out of style and now there is just one commonly used Latin abbreviation. Ibid. is an abbreviation of the Latin word ibidem, which means ‘in the same place’.
Using Ibid. in Notes
As you may notice, the notes section in a Chicago style paper or book can be quite dense at times. In order to help the reader, you may use Ibid. to shorten a citation, if it comes from the same source as the note immediately preceding it.
- Lessing, Finding Authors, 71
- Ibid., 95
Formatting the Abbreviation
- Do not italicize
- Add a period at the end.
- If there is a page number after ibid. place a comma between ibid. and page number
- Don’t use a page number if it’s the same page as the previous note
Using ibid. is helpful for both the writer while creating footnotes and endnotes, and helps the reader as it reduces cluttered text.