Learn and Master Bibliographies, Works Cited, and References

Using Ibid in a Bibliography


As you collect your sources and create your preliminary bibliography, you may chose to use Chicago notes-biblio style to prepare your research paper. As you’re reading through journal articles, you may notice this in the notes section: Ibid.

Student adding ibid to bibliography

What is Ibid?

In past years, it was common to use Latin phrases and abbreviations; however, this practice fell out of style and now there is just one commonly used Latin abbreviation. Ibid. is an abbreviation of the Latin word ibidem, which means ‘in the same place’.

Using Ibid. in Notes

As you may notice, the notes section in a Chicago style paper or book can be quite dense at times. In order to help the reader, you may use Ibid. to shorten a citation, if it comes from the same source as the note immediately preceding it.


  1. Lessing, Finding Authors, 71
  2. Ibid., 95
  3. Ibid.

Formatting the Abbreviation

  • Do not italicize
  • Add a period at the end.
  • If there is a page number after ibid. place a comma between ibid. and page number
  • Don’t use a page number if it’s the same page as the previous note

Using ibid. is helpful for both the writer while creating footnotes and endnotes, and helps the reader as it reduces cluttered text.

About the author

Adrienne Mathewson

Adrienne Mathewson, Editor-in-Chief of Bibliography.com, is an Information Professional with a Master’s in Library, Information & Science from San José State University with an emphasis on information literacy and scholarly publishing. She is a certified librarian through the State of New Mexico. As Editor-in-Chief of SJSU School of Information SRJ. Adrienne guided the editorial team through the scholarly journal’s double-blind, peer reviewed process to provide quality, cited articles to library information and science researchers. Her passion for digital inclusion and information literacy led her to volunteer as a digital training team member of Librarians Without Borders. Adrienne has over 25 years of experience as a freelance writer and editor.

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