Learn and Master Bibliographies, Works Cited, and References

Using 3- em Dash in Chicago/Turabian

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While developing your Chicago/Turabian style bibliography or reference list, you may use the 3-em dash method for multiple works by the same author. In the author-date style you will use the publication date to organize your  entries by the same author (or editor, translator).  If you are using the notes-biblio style, you will organize your entries by the title of the work.

Creating a 3-em Dash

A 3-em dash is created by entering the em dash three times or six hyphens. The em dash can be found in the symbol drop down menu in Word or you can press CTRL + ALT + minus key on the numeric keypad, three times. If you’re using the proper font – Times New Roman 12, the three dashes will make a solid line. Add a period after the 3-em dash.

Author-Date Reference List Example

While using the Chicago/Turabian style of citation, you’ll either use the author-date or notes-biblio style. To list multiple works by the same author by using a 3-em dash in the author-date style, follow this example.

Tarn, William. 1930.  Hellenistic Military and Naval Developments. Chicago: Ares Press.

———. 1948. Alexander the Great: Sources and Studies. Cambridge: Oxford University Press.

———. 1951. Alexander the Great: Narrative. Cambridge: Oxford University Press.

Multiple Authors  

If you have works by the same authors, listed in the same order, you may list them using the 3-em dash by the date of publication. If the same authors are listed in a different order, you’ll need to spell out the authors’ names and alphabetize accordingly.

Savil, Agnes, and Richard Stoneman. 1993. Alexander the Great and His Time. New York: Barnes & Noble.

———. 1997. Alexander the Great. London: Routledge.

Notes-Biblio Example

In the notes-biblio style, you will use a different format for alphabetizing your entries. In this case, since the date is placed at the end of the entry, you will use the title to alphabetize the entries. Remember to ignore articles such as A, An, The.

Tarn, William. Alexander the Great: Narrative. Cambridge: Oxford University Press. 1951.

———.  Alexander the Great: Sources and Studies. Cambridge: Oxford University Press. 1948.

———.  Hellenistic Military and Naval Developments. Chicago: Ares Press. 1930.

Multiple Authors

If you have works written by the same authors, you may use the 3-em dash; however, if the authors are listed in a different order, you’ll need to spell out the names in full.

Savil, Agnes, and Richard Stoneman. Alexander the Great. London: Routledge. 1997.

———. Alexander the Great and His Time. New York: Barnes & Noble. 1993.

Note: Remember that’ nothing precedes something’ in the letter by letter alphabetizing method. Therefore, the title” Alexander the Great” precedes “Alexander the Great and His Time”.

Although, the ” Chicago Manual of Style” does not recommend using the 3-em dash style if you’re submitting your manuscript to a publisher, it is likely that your teacher will ask you for this style. If you do not use the 3-em dash style, simply type in the authors’ name as usual.

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