Citation styles, like Chicago, allow for some variations in creating entries. If you have looked at a bibliography at the end of a research article, you will see that bibliographies are created differently. It is still important that you follow the basic format, and you definitely need consistency in your entries. The main purpose of creating bibliographic entries is to lead your reader directly to your source. This creates authority and gives credit to the creator of the work.
With that said, all entries in a bibliography consist of the same basic elements in the same order. All bibliographic entries include the author, title and other facts of publication. Of course, some works do not have an author. In this case, simply use the name of the organization that produced it or edited it.
The examples below are for the bibliography entries only. The notes entry varies slightly.
It’s best to use as many published print sources as possible even if you access them from an online source. You want to prove your research argument by using strong, reliable sources.
Chicago/Turabian recommends including nine elements when creating citations in your notes bibliography section. Your source may not have all these elements, but search for them to make sure you are including all required data. As you are creating your preliminary bibliography, gather as much information as possible about each source. It is easier to delete unneeded data than it is to trace your steps back to find it.
The nine elements in notes-bibliography style are as follows:
- Author or editor
- Editor or translator
- Series title, volume number
- Publication (city, publisher, date)
- Page number(s)
These elements will vary depending on the type of book, where it is located and other factors.
Single Author or Editor
Use the author or editor’s full name. If there is neither of these, use the institution. Write the name as listed in the source. If an author uses their initials rather than a first name, use the initials. For example, list an author like J. D. Salinger by initials: Salinger, J. D.
Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication.
When citing sources with multiple authors, list the first author by last name, first name and the remaining author(s) by first name last name.
Author #1’s Last Name, Author #1’s First Name, and Author #2’s First and Last Names. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication.
Author #1’s Last Name, Author #1’s First Name, Author #2’s First and Last Name, and Author #3’s First and Last Name. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication.
Author With Editor or Translator
If the book has both an author and editor or translator, add “Edited by” or “Translated by” followed by the first and last name.
Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Edited by Editor’s First and Last Names. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication.
If the book has an edition number, place a period after the title element, then place the edition number, followed by ed.
Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Edition Number ed. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication.
As long as you remember to look for all nine elements you need to compile a complete bibliography entry, you will find it easy to follow the format of the notes bibliography style. Follow the punctuation carefully and make sure you include critical information like the edition number and publisher. This is especially important with classic books, which may be reprinted, translated or edited several times.