Learn and Generate Bibliographies, Citations, and Works Cited

Creating Notes-Biblio Entries for Multi-Media


Writing your research paper starts with finding your sources. When you’re writing a paper on history or the arts, it is likely you’ll be using either MLA style or Chicago/Turabian Notes-Biblio Style. Typically, articles on psychology or other social sciences will not have a lot of art sources and you will use author-date citation styles such as APA or Chicago/Turabian Author-Date Style. MLA and Notes-Biblio give you easier ways to create citations for hard-to-define works such as paintings, live performances and even video games.

Students Notes_Biblio MLA Multi-media

Citing Movies, Podcasts, Videos

With all the different ways to find multimedia such as online videos, radio shows, podcasts, it is important to remember to collect enough data during your preliminary research so that it you can find your source later. Also, you need to make sure your reader can find it. You may even need to indicate the exact time on a video to make your point.

No matter what type of multimedia you are citing, you will need to identify these elements:

Title of work
Creation date (created, published)
Name of the producer (movie studio etc.)
Location of the source.

Gather all other identifying sources together, including directors, actors in a scene you are referencing and type of medium (Blu-ray, online hosting etc.). When you create your notes entry, include data such as time of clip; however, in your bibliography entry, you do not need to include as much information.


The first element of a movie can either be the title of the movie or the director of the movie. Use whatever works best within the context of your research paper. If you are writing about a director or directors, use the director’s name, for example. But if the title of the movie is more important to your discussion, place that first.


If your subject revolves around early female blues singers, write the title of this movie first:

Lady Sings the Blues. Directed by Sidney J. Furie. Paramount Pictures, 1972. 2 hr., 24 min.     https://www.netflix.com/watch/60010575.


However, if you’re writing about Canadian film directors, place the director’s name first:

Furie, Sidney J., director. Lady Sings the Blues. Paramount Pictures, 1972. 2 hr., 24 min. https://www.netflix.com/watch/60010575.

Podcasts and Videos

Incorporate brief references to podcasts and videos into the text of your research paper or create a notes entry only. However, if you decide to cite a podcast or video in your bibliography, include the title, name and date of the episode and the creator of the work. Gather as much information as you can about the work in your preliminary bibliography so you will have what you need for both your notes entry and bibliography entry.


Gonzales, Sarah, and Sally Helm.” #913: Counting the Homeless.” Recorded May 17, 2019 in New York, NY. NPR Planet Money.  https://www.npr.org/2019/05/17/724462179/episode-913-counting-the-homeless.


For videos, follow the movie example but add the format you used to watch the video. For example, if you watched it on a DVD or Blu-ray disc, add that information on to the entry.

It seems confusing to list so many details while citing multimedia sources. However, with all the different ways a person can watch or access media, it’s important to guide your reader to the place you accessed the source. Movies, for example, may be edited to fit television screens or DVD formats, or streaming media may include extras, such as director’s cuts. Again, since you need your reader to understand and follow your research, you need to provide a clear link to the source.

Related Articles:

About the author

Adrienne Mathewson

Adrienne Mathewson, Editor-in-Chief of Bibliography.com, is an Information Professional with a Master’s in Library, Information & Science from San José State University with an emphasis on information literacy and scholarly publishing. She is a certified librarian through the State of New Mexico.

Add comment

1 × 5 =