Learn and Generate Bibliographies, Citations, and Works Cited

CategoryMLA Format

MLA Style is created by the Modern Language Association for use in humanities studies. The MLA Handbook is the official manual for MLA citation format style. As well, there is online access to MLA style rules. The eighth edition was published in 2016 and includes a major revision to MLA rules by introducing the container system using nine core elements. Middle schoolers and high schoolers will learn this style first in English and Language Arts classes.  MLA is flexible and easy to use.

Source

MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition

How to Cite a Play in MLA
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You thought you were a citation master until you hit an MLA play citation roadblock. You’ve quickly discovered that you don’t know how to cite a play in MLA 8 correctly. In MLA style, you need to learn how to cite a play that is published, unpublished, live or even part of an anthology. To begin, you’ll need to include the playwright, act, scene and even line numbers, if they are available...

MLA Format and Citations
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Writing your first paper in MLA format can be a bit scary, to say the least. Use this simple yet comprehensive guide on all things MLA 8 style to take you through the step-by-step process of creating your MLA style paper and works cited, including proper MLA citations. The examples and illustrations will ensure that you don’t get led astray in your MLA essay. Deciding on MLA Format and Citations...

Why Are Proper Citations Important in Academic Writing?
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As students begin writing papers for English and history classes, they learn about citing sources. At first, writing proper citations in academic writing seems confusing and strange. You might even think it’s a waste of time! However, as you continue to write your papers, it becomes clear why you must include citations in your research papers and essays. Understanding Style Guides When your...

Define What In-Text Citations Are for Academic Writing
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As you start writing for your English and history classes, you learn many new terms. You learn you need to cite your research sources, but you may not understand exactly what each term means. Learning the terms used in academic writing helps you understand the process. To define what in-text citations are for academic writing, we’ll first start by defining citations in general. What Are Citations...

MLA PowerPoint Citation Examples
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These MLA 8 PowerPoint citation examples show you how to incorporate sources from slideshows into your humanities school paper. Lectures and meeting notes from conferences are useful sources for your research. Using these types of resources provides your reader with current findings in the topic being discussed. PowerPoint Citation Examples MLA citations uses nine citation elements in a container...

MLA In Text Citation for a Film Example
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Use this MLA 8 in-text citation for a film example to help you write your school paper. MLA format is a flexible editorial style designed for formatting research papers in the humanities. While creating your works cited page, remember that each in-text citation must have a corresponding source entry. Example In-Text Film Citation in MLA Style While writing your in-text citations, duplicate the...

MLA Bible Citation Examples
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Although most editorial styles don’t require a bibliography entry for religious works, MLA 8 style does. Follow these MLA Bible citation examples to see how it is done. This means not only do you place parenthetical or in-text citations within your paper, but you also include a corresponding entry on your works cited page. MLA Bible Citation Format Refer to these basic formats to cite biblical...

MLA Citations for Shakespeare Examples
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Following MLA citations for Shakespeare examples, such as those below, helps to ensure you cite his work correctly. Writing papers about Shakespeare’s life or his plays is easy to do with plenty of open source resources available for your research. If you’re citing his works, then use the title of the play as the first element. If you’re writing about William Shakespeare, in general, then use his...

MLA Magazine Article Citation Examples
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Follow these magazine article citation examples for your MLA humanities paper. That’s how you can bring current resources to your readers’ attention. Most magazines are published weekly or monthly by reputable publishers. Designed to be flexible, MLA 8 style uses the container system, which consists of nine core elements, nested in containers. This allows the writer to design a...

MLA Book Citation Examples
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Using these MLA book citation examples helps you follow a straightforward pattern. MLA citations make it easy to format book citations with multiple authors as you simply use the Latin term “et al.” for three or more authors. Et al. means “and others,” which helps the reader understand there are more authors than are listed in the entry. MLA 8 is a flexible system that...

MLA Journal Citation Examples
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Following these MLA journal citation examples for citing journal articles helps you create accurate works cited pages.  Scholarly journals are peer-reviewed and published regularly, which means these sources are current and authoritative. MLA 8 follows the container system. This system allows for flexibility in creating entries, especially for art, film and music sources. However, with MLA...

MLA Anthology Examples
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These MLA 8 anthology examples show how using the nine core elements within the container system helps you write accurate citations. Using works from anthologies gives you a way to find related research sources. An anthology is a collection of related works. Often poetry and short stories are collected into a single book. For anthologies, follow the basic format for citing books in MLA 8. MLA...

MLA Citations for TV Shows Examples
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Using MLA 8 citations for TV shows adds depth and context to your research. Many television show producers bring social justice issues to the public’s attention. Popular shows such as Fresh Off the Boat and Black-ish highlight racism in everyday life. Other shows, such as the updated version of One Day at a Time, use comedy to showcase the struggles of single mothers. How to Format MLA Citations...

Movie MLA Citation Examples
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While writing your humanities paper, use these movie MLA 8 citation examples to compose your works cited page. Using movies for humanities subjects, such as art, history, and philosophy, is a good way to incorporate visuals into your paper. Find movies on streaming sites, such as Netflix, or check out DVDs from the library. Movie MLA Citation Examples An easy to follow citation style like MLA can...

MLA Video Citation Examples
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Following these MLA video citation examples will guide you through the process of writing entries in your works cited page. MLA 8 style allows for flexibility while creating your works cited entries. Adapt this basic format using the container system with nine core elements. Using video sources, such as DVDs and streaming videos, sparks interest in your research paper. MLA Video Citation Format...

MLA Citation Examples for YouTube Videos
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Students may enjoy watching online videos, but how can they include them as part of an academic paper? Following MLA citation examples for YouTube videos isn’t as complicated as you might think. Fun and educational videos about art, history, and film exist on YouTube. As you look for sources for your MLA 8 research paper, consider using online videos created by reputable organizations. MLA...

MLA Website Citation Examples
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Following these MLA 8 website citation examples helps students create accurate entries in works cited lists. Finding website sources for your humanities or art history paper is easy if you remember to evaluate each website carefully. Be sure to evaluate online sources for the reliability and authority of the website’s publishers. MLA Website Citation Basic Format MLA citations uses nine core...

Newspaper Article MLA Citation Examples
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Citing a newspaper article or two in your school paper allows you to include current, relevant viewpoints to your research. MLA 8 uses nine core elements within a container system; this allows for flexibility while creating citations. This helps guide your readers to the relevant section of your citation source. Follow the newspaper article MLA citation examples below for the correct format...

MLA Citation Rules and Guidelines
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Every citation format includes a list of sourced references at the end of your school research paper. These references detail the elements of the sources you used to conduct your research in the form of a bibliography. When formatting the MLA 8 works cited page for your humanities paper, be sure to follow these guidelines and rules for proper MLA citation. Citation Rules for MLA Works Cited In...

MLA Citation Guide for Essays and Papers
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Creating citations in MLA format is meant to be easy and flexible. When studying the humanities, you’ll rely heavily on sources from art, historical records, film and video. As you can find these sources on different platforms, the container system was developed to accommodate flexible MLA 8 citation formats. MLA In-Text Citation Format  Use in-text or parenthetical citations when you...

Easy MLA Style Guide for Students
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As you enter middle and high school English classes, you will be asked to write papers in the MLA format. Using MLA 8 may seem confusing at first; however, as you gain skills, you’ll realize that writing in this style actually helps you organize your paper, do research and avoid plagiarism. Understanding MLA style is the first step to a successful research writing experience. Overview of...

MLA Format Basics
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Students start writing essays in middle school English classes. Their first assignments will be short essays, like the standard five-paragraph essay. As they progress through high school and college, they will learn how to research and write longer papers for different subjects using citation style guides like MLA 8. Usually, MLA format is the first style that students learn to use. Technology...

MLA Block Quote Format
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Including quotations to your MLA 8 school essay or research paper adds strength to it. Quotes help the reader understand the original sources while also reinforcing your thesis. Although you don’t want to overuse long quotations in your paper, it is sometimes necessary, particularly for poems. To properly set the quote off from the rest of the paper, you’ll need to format it correctly. In MLA...

Writing Numbers in MLA Style
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You’ll need to know when and how to write out numbers in your MLA 8 style school essay. The rules are easy to follow as MLA format tries to make it simple to write and organize papers in this style. Arabic or Roman Numerals Although you will use Arabic numerals (e.g., 1, 2, 3) for numbers that are not spelled out, you may use Roman numerals (e.g., I, II, III) in certain cases. For example, the...

Citing an Introduction or Afterword in MLA
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No matter what style you’re using for your school paper, you should cite from authoritative sources. Verify the information comes from a valid, authoritative source by checking the authenticity of the website, author, and/or the organization that published it. This includes citing an afterword or preface in your MLA 8 paper. Establishing Authority in Your School Paper Many times, you can...

How to Cite a PowerPoint Presentation in MLA
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Your instructor just gave a fabulous lecture in PowerPoint that you could use in your MLA paper. But how do you cite a PowerPoint presentation in MLA style? Learning how to format an in-text citation for PowerPoint in MLA isn’t as hard as you might think. But, it will depend on if the presentation was given during a lecture or if you found the PowerPoint online. For clarity, you’ll learn both how...

How to Format Your MLA Cover Page
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Formatting your MLA 8 paper is important to the overall presentation of your paper. As part of the learning process, your teacher will require you to format your essay by following MLA rules. The cover page is critical to your overall paper, as it’s the first impression your instructor and readers will see. However, in MLA format, a formal cover page is not required. MLA Cover Page Formatting...

How to Properly Punctuate a MLA Works Cited Page
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Arranging your MLA 8 works cited page properly with the correct punctuation is an important part of finalizing your school research assignment. Your teacher will provide guidance as to any particular formatting issues; however, in general, you should adhere to the following rules. Basic Works Cited Punctuation MLA format doesn’t have a lot of fancy punctuation rules. For the most part, it’s...

Difference Between a Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography
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As students enter the research writing world, they have to learn a whole new language about theses, bibliographies, secondary sources, and other new terms. Some students may not understand the difference between an abstract, an annotated bibliography entry, and a literature review. The confusion is understandable as there are many similarities in these aspects of report writing. First of all...

Arranging Numbers in Works Cited List
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When writing a school paper in MLA 8 style, you will need to know how to format your works cited page. Hopefully, you’ve created a working or preliminary bibliography as you did your research. Now, you simply take your preliminary works cited page and start arranging it as required. One common question is whether numbers come before letters. The quick answer is “no.” Instead, follow...

MLA Works Cited for Movies, Films, and TV Shows
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If you’re writing a school essay using MLA format and need to cite films, movies or television shows, you can do so easily. MLA 8 is designed to be flexible to accommodate different platforms and versions. The container system enables you to emphasize relevant details, so your citations will always be on point. Films or Movies? “Films” and “movies” are synonymous, so you...

How to Cite the Bible in MLA Works Cited
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Most citation styles, such as APA and Chicago/Turabian, do not require you to include entries for the Bible in bibliographies or reference lists. MLA 8 style, on the other hand, does require a works cited entry. Cite the Bible or other religious texts using the MLA container system. Creating an MLA Entry for a Bible Source Using the nine core elements of MLA format, the first element will be the...

Citing an Anthology in MLA Works Cited Pages
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Anthologies are collections of writings published in a book or journal. The writings center around a similar theme, time or subject matter. Oftentimes, this involves various authors. However, collections of poems or short stories by the same author are also anthologies. How you cite an anthology in MLA style depends on whether you are referencing the whole anthology or a single entry in it. Types...

Creating Hanging Indents for a MLA Works Cited
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Also called a second line indent or reverse indent, a hanging indent means the second line is indented five spaces from the first line. In terms of how to indent a citation in your works cited, you can create a hanging indent in any word processing program, like Word or Google Docs. Just add five spaces to the second and subsequent lines of your MLA citation.  Since that can get really tedious...

How to Cite an Interview in MLA
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Did a prominent professor give you a personal interview over email? Are you taking a quote from a personal interview in a magazine, either online or in print, for your MLA paper? In figuring out how to cite an interview in MLA style, you’ll need to account for different scenarios. No matter what type of interview you need to cite, though, you’ll learn how to quickly, easily and perfectly create...

How to Cite Shakespeare in MLA Works Cited
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Acts, scenes and lines, oh my! You must be figuring out how to cite Shakespeare in your MLA paper. When it comes to Shakespeare in your MLA citation, creating quotes, in-text citations and formatting works cited entries is all about style. To make sure your style is “A” worthy, get the step-by-step instructions for creating all your Shakespeare citations from “Hamlet” to “Romeo and Juliet.”  How...

Citing Scholarly Journal Articles in MLA Works Cited
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Using scholarly journal articles in your MLA 8 essay is a good way to find authoritative sources to back up your thesis statement. Depending on their content, journal articles can be primary or secondary sources. When searching for relevant articles, read the abstract first. This will help you determine whether the article will be a useful addition for your paper. Using Journal Article Databases...

MLA Works Cited for Magazine or Newspaper Articles
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In MLA’s latest update, MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition, a container system was developed to help students figure out how to cite sources, like magazine and newspaper articles, correctly. MLA style is used in the humanities, which includes bibliographic entries for art, music, film, movies and video. With rapidly evolving technology, it became difficult for MLA editors to keep up with the changes...

Preparing to Write MLA College Papers
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Learning to research and write MLA 8 college papers is an essential skill as you leave the comfort of high school classes. One frequent complaint by college professors is that high school students come unprepared for college-level writing. Gearing high school classes towards standardized tests encourages teachers to teach the five-paragraph essay. Thus, students don’t really learn how to...

Using Note Cards for MLA Research Papers
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In today’s digital age, it seems strange that organizing your research sources would be done on index cards. Instead of a mobile app or Google Doc, writing your sources on separate 3″ x 5″ index cards may still be a better way to help organize your citation sources. Although some teachers provide Word document templates that follow the same pattern, note cards make it easier to sort...

Difference Between Five-Paragraph Essay and MLA Paper
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In high school, you’ll learn how to write a five-paragraph essay. This skill comes in handy as you learn to develop a thesis statement and organize an essay. Writing a five-paragraph essay is a part of standardized testing, which means it is a useful skill to learn. However, it is different from an MLA 8 format research paper or essay. Organizing a Five-Paragraph Essay When you write a five...

Tips for Writing Good MLA Thesis Statements
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Writing thesis statements for your MLA 8 style school paper can seem intimidating to high school and college students. You may have practice in understanding thesis statements when you prepared five-paragraph essays. Maybe you have even written short five-page research papers in your English classes. Writing MLA College Papers However, now you are entering college and you will be writing a lot of...

Creating MLA 8 In-Text Citations
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Students often use terms such as reference, citation and bibliography interchangeably, but there are differences between these terms. A bibliography (or reference list) is the list of all the sources you used to create your paper. The citation is actually the combination of your in-text source and the full entry listed at the end of your paper. This list, titled a bibliography, works cited or...

Guide to MLA Container Format With Examples
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As you learn about using MLA 8 for citing your sources, you’ll notice the term “container” being used. You may wonder what that means for you as you create your works cited page. There’s a simple reason why MLA format developed the container style. While updating the MLA Handbook, the editors realized they needed to create an easier way to format entries. Since information is found in...

9 Core Elements of MLA Works Cited Pages
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MLA format is designed to be flexible, since it’s used in the arts and humanities. The eighth edition of the MLA Handbook provides an easy way to create entries for different sources, such as artworks, videos and printed materials. Simply follow the core elements framework to create the entries in your MLA works cited list. MLA Core Elements There are nine core elements to each entry in an MLA...

MLA Abbreviations and Acronyms Including Months
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You may use abbreviations and acronyms in your MLA 8 works cited list. However, when you are writing your paper, you should always spell out the words in full. Instead of using abbreviations such as etc., i.e. and e.g., write them out completely. For example, instead of using e.g., write out “for example.” When you use acronyms in your MLA format paper, write them out in full first. Then, you can...

MLA 7th Edition vs MLA 8th Edition
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As you start to prepare your paper, you hit a crossroads. Should you use the seventh edition or the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook? You may think there’s not much difference. However, the MLA 8th edition introduced a shift in creating entries for your works cited list. In 2016, the Modern Language Association (MLA) decided it was time to revise its guidelines to reflect ever-changing...

How to Put MLA Works Cited in Alphabetical Order
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You finally finished your research paper and your sources have been created into entries. Now, you can start putting it all together. You’re almost done. Alphabetizing your MLA 8 works cited list is easy as it follows the letter by letter method. Read on to understand how this method works when you’re dealing with multiple authors, no author or other cases. List Items Alphabetically  The first...

Organizing Works Cited in MLA Format
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Unlike a bibliography, an MLA format works cited list only lists the sources you cite in your research paper. Every citation in your paper should match up to an entry in your works cited list. This means you need to review your paper to make sure the in-text citations are properly sourced at the end of your paper. If your instructor asks you to prepare a bibliography in MLA 8 style, title it as...

Difference Between MLA and APA Citation Pages
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You’ve been looking over the different writing styles and noticed that MLA and APA format are similar. Staring at the citation page, you really can’t see a difference between the two. While MLA 8 and APA 6 do have a lot of similarities in the citation pages, there are a few distinct differences that you’ll notice if you really look at them. MLA vs. APA If you are comparing MLA and APA citation...