Learn and Master Bibliographies, Works Cited, and References

Using Notes-Biblio Style for Books


Citation styles, like Chicago, allow for some variations in creating entries. If you have looked at a bibliography at the end of a research article, you will see that bibliographies are created differently. It is still important that you follow the basic format and, you definitely need to use consistency in your entries.  The main purpose of creating bibliographic entries is to lead your reader directly to your source. This creates authority and gives credit to the creator of the work.
With that said, all entries in a bibliography consist of the same basic elements in the same order. All bibliographic entries include the author, title and other facts of publication. Of course, some works do not have an author. In this case, simply use the name of the organization that produced it or edited it.

The examples below are for the bibliography entries only. The notes entry varies slightly.

Print Books

It’s best to use as many published print sources as possible even if you access them from an online source. You want to prove your research argument by using strong, reliable sources.

While creating citations in your notes bibliography section, Chicago/Turabian recommends including nine elements. Your source may not have all these elements, but search for them to make sure you are including all required data. As you are creating your preliminary bibliography, gather as much information as possible about each source. It is easier to delete unneeded data than tracing your steps back to find it.

The nine elements in a notes-biblio style bibliography are as follows:

  1. Author or Editor
  2. Title/Subtitle
  3. Editor/Translator
  4. Edition
  5. Volume
  6. Series title, volume number
  7. Publication (city, publisher, date)
  8. Page number (s)
  9. URL/DOI

These elements will vary depending on the type of book, where it is located and other factors.

Single Author or Editor

Use the author or editor’s full name. If there is neither of these, use the institution. Write the name as listed in the source. If an author uses his/her initials rather than a first name, use the initials. For example, list an author like J. D. Salinger by initials:  Salinger, J. D.

Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication.

Burke, Peter. A Social History of Knowledge: From Gutenberg to Diderot. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2000.

: If you found the print book online, add the URL or DOI to the end of the entry.

Multiple Authors

When citing sources with multiple authors, list the first author by last name, first name and the remaining author(s) by first name, last name.

Author #1’s Last Name, Author #1’s First Name, and Author #2’s First and Last Names. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication.

Buchwald, Jed Z., and Mordechai Feingold. Newton and the Origin of Civilization. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013.

After the first author’s name place a comma and the word and before listing the second author’s name.

Three Authors

Author #1’s Last Name, Author #1’s First Name, Author #2’s First and Last Name, and Author #3’s First and Last Name. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication.

Harrison, Charles, Paul Wood, and Jason Gaiger. Art in Theory 1648-1815: An Anthology of Changing Ideas. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2000.

Author With Editor or Translator

If the book has both an author and editor or translator, place Edited by or Translated By followed by the first and last name.

Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Edited by Editor’s First and Last Names. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication.

The ACS Style Guide: Effective Communication of Scientific Information. 3d ed. Edited by Anne M. Coghill and Lorrin R. Garson. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society, 2006.


Cassiodorus. An Introduction to Divine and Human Readings. Translated by Leslie Webber Jones. New York: Columbia University Press, 1946.

Edition Number

If the book has an edition number, place a period after the title element the place the edition number, followed by ed.

Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Edition Number ed. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication.

Lee, Marshall. Bookmaking: Editing, Design, Production. 3d ed. New York: Norton, 2004.


As long as you remember to look for all the nine elements you will need to compile a bibliography entry, you will find it easy to follow the format of the notes biblio style. Follow the punctuation carefully and make sure you are including critical information like the edition number and publisher. Especially with classic books, which may be reprinted, translated or edited several times.

About the author

Adrienne Mathewson

Adrienne Mathewson, Editor-in-Chief of Bibliography.com, is an Information Professional with a Master’s in Library, Information & Science from San José State University with an emphasis on information literacy and scholarly publishing. She is a certified librarian through the State of New Mexico. As Editor-in-Chief of SJSU School of Information SRJ. Adrienne guided the editorial team through the scholarly journal’s double-blind, peer reviewed process to provide quality, cited articles to library information and science researchers. Her passion for digital inclusion and information literacy led her to volunteer as a digital training team member of Librarians Without Borders. Adrienne has over 25 years of experience as a freelance writer and editor.

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